How to format your references using the Journal of Endodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Endodontics (JOEN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel Geoff. Powerful incentives. Nature 2007;448(7155):741.
A journal article with 2 authors
Menon Suchithra, Manning Brendan D. Cell signalling: nutrient sensing lost in cancer. Nature 2013;498(7455):444–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Senghas Ann, Kita Sotaro, Ozyürek Asli. Children creating core properties of language: evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Science 2004;305(5691):1779–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sreekanth Kandammathe Valiyaveedu, Krishna Koduru Hari, De Luca Antonio, Strangi Giuseppe. Large spontaneous emission rate enhancement in grating coupled hyperbolic metamaterials. Sci Rep 2014;4:6340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kowalick Thomas M. Fatal Exit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Lee Mong Li, Yu Jeffrey Xu, Bellahsène Zohra, Unland Rainer, editors. Database and XML Technologies: 7th International XML Database Symposium, XSym 2010, Singapore, September 17, 2010. Proceedings. vol. 6309. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Qian Xuehai, Huang He, Duan Zhenzhong, et al. Optimized Register Renaming Scheme for Stack-Based x86 Operations. In: Lukowicz Paul, Thiele Lothar, Tröster Gerhard, editors. Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Endodontics.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. Huge Crater Mysteriously Appears In Siberia. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety and Security: Some Actions Already Taken to Enhance Rail Security, but Risk-based Plan Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anyaoha Amaka L. Surgical time-out: A nursing team training approach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon Mary. Rare Medal Sweep for the United States. New York Times 2014:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (14).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Endodontics
AbbreviationJ. Endod.
ISSN (print)0099-2399
ISSN (online)1878-3554
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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