How to format your references using the Citizenship Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizenship Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholls, Henry. 2011. “The Art of Conservation.” Nature 472 (7343): 287–289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Best, Robert B., and Gerhard Hummer. 2005. “Comment on ‘Force-Clamp Spectroscopy Monitors the Folding Trajectory of a Single Protein.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5721): 498; author reply 498.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, Jiuhua, Qipeng Liu, and Xiaofan Wang. 2014. “Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5858.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Paggi, Marco, Irene Berardone, Andrea Infuso, and Mauro Corrado. 2014. “Fatigue Degradation and Electric Recovery in Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Photovoltaic Modules.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lader, Ellis W. 2013. Field Guide to the Arrhythmias. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Bunt, Harry, and Reinhard Muskens, eds. 2007. Computing Meaning. Vol. 83. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Greiner, Alfred, and Bettina Fincke. 2015. “Government Debt and Human Capital Formation.” In Public Debt, Sustainability and Economic Growth: Theory and Empirics, edited by Bettina Fincke, 205–232. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizenship Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Funnel Formed By Volcano On Mars Could Be A Prime Location For Life.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role. NSIAD-94-248. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gopalappa, Chaitra. 2010. “Three Essays on Analytical Models to Improve Early Detection of Cancer.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Medina, Jennifer, Richard Pérez-Peña, and Adam Goldman. 2017. “Meticulous Plan To Rain Carnage On Concertgoers.” New York Times, October 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholls 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Nicholls 2011; Best and Hummer 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Best and Hummer 2005)
  • Three authors: (Zhao, Liu, and Wang 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Paggi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizenship Studies
AbbreviationCitizensh. Stud.
ISSN (print)1362-1025
ISSN (online)1469-3593
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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