How to format your references using the Citizenship Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizenship Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hassan, Mohamed. 2008. “Beijing 1987: China’s Coming-out Party.” Nature 455 (7213): 598–599.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund, Pascale, and Bernard Foing. 2015. “Astrochemistry: Fullerene Solves an Interstellar Puzzle.” Nature 523 (7560): 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eberhardt, M. V., C. Y. Lee, and R. H. Liu. 2000. “Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Apples.” Nature 405 (6789): 903–904.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Elsabahy, Mahmoud, Shiyi Zhang, Fuwu Zhang, Zhou J. Deng, Young H. Lim, Hai Wang, Perouza Parsamian, Paula T. Hammond, and Karen L. Wooley. 2013. “Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-Based Nanoparticles.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Fleet, Patrick J. 2008. Discrete Wavelet Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yao, Jingtao, ed. 2010. Web-Based Support Systems. Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boucheneb, Hanifa, and Abdessamad Imine. 2009. “On Model-Checking Optimistic Replication Algorithms.” In Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: Joint 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FMOODS 2009 and 29th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FORTE 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings, edited by David Lee, Antónia Lopes, and Arnd Poetzsch-Heffter, 73–89. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizenship Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Here’s What It Takes To Raise Seriously Smart Kids, According To A 45-Year-Long Study.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Telecommunications: FCC Should Assess the Design of the E-Rate Program’s Internal Control Structure. GAO-10-908. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freedman, Ryan. 2014. “Assessing the Functional Recovery and Connectivity Potential of Restored Estuaries in Southern California Using Juvenile Predator Fish Movements.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Venezuelan Ballplayers Love Homeland, at a Safe Distance.” New York Times, March 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hassan 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hassan 2008; Ehrenfreund and Foing 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrenfreund and Foing 2015)
  • Three authors: (Eberhardt, Lee, and Liu 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Elsabahy et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizenship Studies
AbbreviationCitizensh. Stud.
ISSN (print)1362-1025
ISSN (online)1469-3593
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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