How to format your references using the Journal of Animal Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Animal Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wade, N. (2009). Retrospective. John Maddox (1925-2009). Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1028.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loeb, A., & Waxman, E. (2000). Cosmic gamma-ray background from structure formation in the intergalactic medium. Nature, 405(6783), 156–158.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, D. K., Cann, J. R., & Escartín, J. (2006). Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature, 442(7101), 440–443.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Elsworth, D., Mattioli, G., Taron, J., Voight, B., & Herd, R. (2008). Implications of magma transfer between multiple reservoirs on eruption cycling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5899), 246–248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean, D. (2012). Understanding Aerodynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rios Insua, D., & French, S. (Eds.). (2010). e-Democracy: A Group Decision and Negotiation Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ziegler, A. R. (2010). The Nascent International Law on Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) Clauses in Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). In C. Herrmann & J. P. Terhechte (Eds.), European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2010 (pp. 77–101). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Animal Ecology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 31). What Is Kratom And Why Has The DEA Decided It’s As Dangerous As Heroin? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Transportation Security: Actions Needed to Address Limitations in TSA’s Transportation Worker Security Threat Assessments and Growing Workload (No. GAO-12-60). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medlej, M. (2017). Assessing the Probability of Prototyping Success in Systems Acquisitions (APOPS) (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, March 4). Friday File: A Look at the Golden Age for Oscar-Nominated Newspaper Movies. New York Times, p. C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wade, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Loeb & Waxman, 2000; Wade, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Loeb & Waxman, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Smith, Cann, & Escartín, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Elsworth, Mattioli, Taron, Voight, & Herd, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Animal Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Anim. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8790
ISSN (online)1365-2656
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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