How to format your references using the Journal of Animal Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Animal Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. (2010). World view: Defending democracy. Nature, 465(7298), 546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bekerman, E., & Einav, S. (2015). Infectious disease. Combating emerging viral threats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6232), 282–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruskotter, J. T., Enzler, S. A., & Treves, A. (2011). Science and law. Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6051), 1828–1829.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pancer, Z., Amemiya, C. T., Ehrhardt, G. R. A., Ceitlin, J., Gartland, G. L., & Cooper, M. D. (2004). Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey. Nature, 430(6996), 174–180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., & Grossman, S. (2007). Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hildebrandt, M., & Gaakeer, J. (Eds.). (2013). Human Law and Computer Law: Comparative Perspectives (Vol. 25). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Yumkella, K. K. (2012). Multilateralism and Energy for Development. In F. L. Toth (Ed.), Energy for Development: Resources, Technologies, Environment (pp. 45–56). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Animal Ecology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 9). An Alligator Has Been Found With A Human Body In Its Mouth In Florida. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Aviation Safety: Procedures for Registering and Certifying Air Carriers (No. RCED-87-115FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh, A. N. (2010). Adoption is an option: A personal narrative (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015, November 24). In Chernobyl, Life Finds a Way. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bekerman & Einav, 2015; Sarewitz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bekerman & Einav, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bruskotter, Enzler, & Treves, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pancer et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Animal Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Anim. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8790
ISSN (online)1365-2656
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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