How to format your references using the Journal of Animal Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Animal Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corsi, P. (2009). Evolution pioneers: Lamarck’s reputation saved by his zoology. Nature, 461(7261), 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Y., & Robinson, G. H. (2011). Chemistry. Building a Lewis base with boron. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 530–531.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chu, R., Reczek, D., & Brondyk, W. (2014). Capture-stabilize approach for membrane protein SPR assays. Scientific Reports, 4, 7360.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ota, A., Mase, J., Howteerakul, N., Rajatanun, T., Suwannapong, N., Yatsuya, H., & Ono, Y. (2014). The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women. Scientific Reports, 4, 6402.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehto, J., & Hou, X. (2010). Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kaskutas, L. A., & Galanter, M. (Eds.). (2008). Recent Developments in Alcoholism: Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and Spirituality in Addiction Recovery. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Telnarova, Z. (2011). RDF Data Models in Oracle. In A. Abd Manaf, S. Sahibuddin, R. Ahmad, S. Mohd Daud, & E. El-Qawasmeh (Eds.), Informatics Engineering and Information Science: International Conference, ICIEIS 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV (pp. 52–64). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Animal Ecology.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, February 10). Tiny Robot Drones Developed To Help Declining Bees Pollinate Plants. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Air Traffic Control: Continued Improvements Needed in FAA’s Management of the NAS Plan (No. RCED-89-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stangl, B. L. (2010). The mediation of cognitive task performance in post-menopausal women: An examination of the effects of DHEA upon cognition (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe, S. H. (1904, August 6). Mandan Territory, U.S.A. New York Times, p. PART TWO SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKSBR534.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corsi, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Corsi, 2009; Wang & Robinson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Robinson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Chu, Reczek, & Brondyk, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ota et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Animal Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Anim. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8790
ISSN (online)1365-2656
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles