How to format your references using the Journal of Animal Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Animal Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. M. (2012). Obesity: insensitive issue. Nature, 486(7403), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Partridge, L., & Gems, D. (2002). A lethal side-effect. Nature, 418(6901), 921.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simmons, S. L., Bazylinski, D. A., & Edwards, K. J. (2006). South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Northern Hemisphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5759), 371–374.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Y., Guo, Y. R., Liu, K., Yin, Z., Liu, R., Xia, Y., … Lu, Z. (2017). KAT2A coupled with the α-KGDH complex acts as a histone H3 succinyltransferase. Nature, 552(7684), 273–277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jäger, W., & Marzahn, G. (2010). Mauerwerk. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Baral, C., Greco, G., Leone, N., & Terracina, G. (Eds.). (2005). Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning: 8th International Conference, LPNMR 2005, Diamante, Italy, September 5-8, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ray, S., & Özdemir, V. (2016). Angel Philanthropy and Crowdfunding to Accelerate Cancer Research in Developing World. In S. Srivastava (Ed.), Biomarker Discovery in the Developing World: Dissecting the Pipeline for Meeting the Challenges (pp. 65–71). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Animal Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 10). Two Of The World’s Largest Rodents Are On The Run From Toronto Zoo.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Port Infrastructure: Financing of Navigation Projects at Small and Medium-Sized Ports (No. RCED-00-58). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, Y. I. (2008). Essays on Volatility Risk, Asset Returns and Consumption-Based Asset Pricing (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, April 17). Climate Change Reroutes a Yukon River in a Geological Instant, Scientists Say. New York Times, p. A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2012; Partridge & Gems, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Partridge & Gems, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Simmons, Bazylinski, & Edwards, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Animal Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Anim. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8790
ISSN (online)1365-2656
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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