How to format your references using the Journal of Electronic Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electronic Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Quéré, “Academies must engage with society,” Nature 465(7301), 1009 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
A. P. Mackenzie and S. A. Grigera, “Physics. A quantum critical route to field-induced superconductivity,” Science 309(5739), 1330–1331 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Liu, M. Pellegrini, and X. Wang, “Detecting communities based on network topology,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5739 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Isberg et al., “High carrier mobility in single-crystal plasma-deposited diamond,” Science 297(5587), 1670–1672 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. R. Rosenberger, Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005).
An edited book
T. Tropina, Self- and Co-regulation in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and National Security, C. Callanan, Ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
W. Bishop and T. H. Grubesic, “Metadata,” in Geographic Information: Organization, Access, and Use, T. H. Grubesic, Ed., pp. 79–103, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electronic Imaging.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “It’s Time To Fix Our Outdated Guidelines For Human Vaccine Trials,” IFLScience, 5 March 2015, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Air Traffic Control: Preliminary Observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers,” GAO-05-542T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. W. Kolaski, “Cultural awareness and the U.S. military advisor in the Arab Middle East: A phenomenological study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. Wagner, “Mets Fall Again, and Weigh Options,” in New York Times, p. D2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electronic Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Electron. Imaging
ISSN (print)1017-9909
ISSN (online)1560-229X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles