How to format your references using the Journal of Electronic Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electronic Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. W. Romani, “Astronomy. Pulsar beams--big and bright,” Science 344(6180), 159–160 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Percec and M. S. Bartolomei, “Genetics. Do X chromosomes set boundaries?,” Science 295(5553), 287–288 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
C. A. Boisvert, E. Mark-Kurik, and P. E. Ahlberg, “The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits,” Nature 456(7222), 636–638 (2008).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. J. Beebe et al., “Functional hydrogel structures for autonomous flow control inside microfluidic channels,” Nature 404(6778), 588–590 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. C. Grove, Groups and Characters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1997).
An edited book
J.-S. Pan, S.-M. Chen, and N. T. Nguyen, Eds., Computational Collective Intelligence. Technologies and Applications: Second International Conference, ICCCI 2010, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 10-12, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
E. S. Molho and S. A. Factor, “Psychosis,” in Parkinson’s Disease and Nonmotor Dysfunction, R. F. Pfeiffer and I. Bodis-Wollner, Eds., pp. 63–90, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electronic Imaging.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Bad Times Make Pea Plants Gamble,” IFLScience, 4 July 2016, <; (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges,” GAO-16-659SP, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. J. Mullin Piette, “Dialogic encounters among health care providers in pediatric critical care: A qualitative, collective case study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Yablonsky, “Space Invader,” in New York Times, p. M234 (2009).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electronic Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Electron. Imaging
ISSN (print)1017-9909
ISSN (online)1560-229X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles