How to format your references using the Journal of Electronic Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electronic Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Perrin, “Preclinical research: Make mouse studies work,” Nature 507(7493), 423–425 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
J. P. A. Ioannidis and M. J. Khoury, “Improving validation practices in ‘omics’ research,” Science 334(6060), 1230–1232 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
E. C. Friedberg, R. Wagner, and M. Radman, “Specialized DNA polymerases, cellular survival, and the genesis of mutations,” Science 296(5573), 1627–1630 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-B. Michel et al., “Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books,” Science 331(6014), 176–182 (2011).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. P. Raj and S. Erdine, Pain-Relieving Procedures, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2012).
An edited book
X. Wang, Traceback and Anonymity, D. Reeves, Ed., Springer, New York, NY (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
A. Rossini et al., “A Graph Transformation-Based Semantics for Deep Metamodelling,” in Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: 4th International Symposium, AGTIVE 2011, Budapest, Hungary, October 4-7, 2011, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, A. Schürr, D. Varró, and G. Varró, Eds., pp. 19–34, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electronic Imaging.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “So What If Some Female Olympians Have High Testosterone?,” IFLScience, 15 August 2016 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Safety: Fatalities in Light Trucks and Vans,” PEMD-91-8, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Schaff, “What characterizes and impacts student transformational learning in a community college work placement context,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. M. Novick, “When the Brew Is as Crucial as the Bean,” in New York Times, p. LI8 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electronic Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Electron. Imaging
ISSN (print)1017-9909
ISSN (online)1560-229X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles