How to format your references using the Journal of Electronic Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electronic Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, “Emissions targets ‘unrealistic’ says US climate change body,” Nature 406(6794), 333–334 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
B. A. Melbourne and A. Hastings, “Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity,” Nature 454(7200), 100–103 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Chen, B. E. Carlson, and A. D. Del Genio, “Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s,” Science 295(5556), 838–841 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. E. Llewellyn et al., “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Blanchet and M. Charbit, Digital Signal and Image Processing Using MATLAB®, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2015).
An edited book
H. Decker et al., Eds., Database and Expert Systems Applications: 25th International Conference, DEXA 2014, Munich, Germany, September 1-4, 2014. Proceedings, Part I, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
P. Saikumar and M. A. Venkatachalam, “Apoptosis and Cell Death,” in Basic Concepts of Molecular Pathology, T. C. Allen and P. T. Cagle, Eds., pp. 29–40, Springer US, Boston, MA (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electronic Imaging.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “New Horizons Returns Stunning Image Of Charon That Includes A ‘Mountain In A Moat,’” IFLScience, 17 July 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Job Training Partnership Act: Labor Title IV Initiatives Could Improve Relations With Native Americans,” HEHS-94-67, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Bhatnagar, “Buckling and weight optimization for non-coupled antisymmetric laminates,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Coscarelli, M. Ryzik, and B. Sisario, “Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure,” in New York Times, p. A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electronic Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Electron. Imaging
ISSN (print)1017-9909
ISSN (online)1560-229X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles