How to format your references using the Journal of Electronic Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electronic Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Hand, “Cash crisis could ground NASA rocket,” Nature 461(7261), 153 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Turck and G. Coupland, “Plant science. When vernalization makes sense,” Science 331(6013), 36–37 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
S. West, N. Gromak, and N. J. Proudfoot, “Human 5’ --> 3’ exonuclease Xrn2 promotes transcription termination at co-transcriptional cleavage sites,” Nature 432(7016), 522–525 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Möller et al., “Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2884 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. G. Fisher et al., Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1993).
An edited book
D. Lee and S. Hong, Eds., Information, Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2009: 12th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, December 2-4, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
M. Fujiyoshi et al., “Development of Synchronized CUI and GUI for Universal Design Tactile Graphics Production System BPLOT3,” in Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part II, K. Miesenberger et al., Eds., pp. 18–25, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electronic Imaging.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Jaw-Bone Discovery Reveals More About Secret Sex Lives Of Neanderthals And Early Humans,” IFLScience, 23 June 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “National Airspace System: Comprehensive FAA Plan for Global Positioning System Is Needed,” RCED-95-26, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Nichols, “Genetic and genomic mechanisms of neonatal hyperoxic lung injury in the inbred mouse,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. K. (nyt), “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Headscarves Banned From ID Photos,” in New York Times, p. A4 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electronic Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Electron. Imaging
ISSN (print)1017-9909
ISSN (online)1560-229X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles