How to format your references using the Journal of Fetal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fetal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cuervo AM. Cell biology. Autophagy’s top chef. Science. 2011;332:1392–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Greening BR, Fefferman NH. Evolutionary significance of the role of family units in a broader social system. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3608.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Guo D, Knight TE, McCusker JK. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer. Science. 2011;334:1684–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hulot G, Eymin C, Langlais B, Mandea M, Olsen N. Small-scale structure of the geodynamo inferred from Oersted and Magsat satellite data. Nature. 2002;416:620–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McGee G. Bioethics for beginners. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Yamamoto S, editor. Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Knowledge in Applications and Services: 16th International Conference, HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gur Y, Pasternak O, Sochen N. SPD Tensors Regularization via Iwasawa Decomposition. In: Florack L, Duits R, Jongbloed G, Lieshout M-C van, Davies L, editors. Mathematical Methods for Signal and Image Analysis and Representation. London: Springer; 2012. p. 83–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fetal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Nikola Tesla [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA’s Procurement of Solid Rocket Booster Motors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-86-194.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Horning CL. Kinesthetic learning in algebra and its effects on students’ achievement and disposition toward mathemathics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Slow Trading Fails to Dent Strong Results for Banks. New York Times. 2017 Jul 14;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fetal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Fetal Med.
ISSN (print)2348-1153
ISSN (online)2348-8859

Other styles