How to format your references using the Journal of Fetal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fetal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Relman DA. Microbiology. Undernutrition--looking within for answers. Science. 2013;339:530–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Leslie NR, Brunton VG. Cell biology. Where is PTEN? Science. 2013;341:355–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Liu L, Leung EL-H, Tian X. Perspective: The clinical trial barriers. Nature. 2011;480:S100.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen T-G, Barton LM, Lin Y, Tsien J, Kossler D, Bastida I, et al. Building C(sp3)-rich complexity by combining cycloaddition and C-C cross-coupling reactions. Nature. 2018;560:350–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gordon J. Training Camp. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Kupfer K, editor. Electromagnetic Aquametry: Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Das A. Differentiable Manifolds with Connections. In: Das A, editor. Tensors: The Mathematics of Relativity Theory and Continuum Mechanics. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 92–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fetal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Historic Paris Climate Agreement Set To Come Into Force After EU Ratification [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 May. Report No.: GAO-07-538.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pham AT. Factorization of polynomials modulo a prime [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Miles to Go Before He Sings. New York Times. 2013 Mar 10;MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fetal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Fetal Med.
ISSN (print)2348-1153
ISSN (online)2348-8859

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