How to format your references using the BMC Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dolan L. Plant science. SCARECROWs at the border. Science. 2007;316:377–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ellington AD, Bull JJ. Evolution. Changing the cofactor diet of an enzyme. Science. 2005;310:454–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zeng Y, Ye Q, Shen W. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4915.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu D, Zhang Y, Wen J, Chen Z, Wei D, Hu X, et al. Diffraction interference induced superfocusing in nonlinear Talbot effect. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kudnig ST, Séguin B. Veterinary Surgical Oncology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Jankowich M, Gartman E, editors. Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Unit. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Filho VW. Cancer of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Nasopharynx. In: Anttila S, Boffetta P, editors. Occupational Cancers. London: Springer; 2014. p. 49–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Physiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. GM Potatoes With Health Benefits Approved By USDA. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tabano JG. How Former Division I Student-Athletes Experienced Their Dual Undergraduate Roles: The Internal Competition for an Identity. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wines M. A Racial Divide Remains Over Views of Justice. New York Times. 2014;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Physiology
AbbreviationBMC Physiol.
ISSN (online)1472-6793
General Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles