How to format your references using the Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.N. Germain, The art of the probable: system control in the adaptive immune system, Science. 293 (2001) 240–245.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Dunn, F. Martinez, Contrasting crustal production and rapid mantle transitions beneath back-arc ridges, Nature. 469 (2011) 198–202.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Fan, J. Li, L. Wang, Phase transitions, mechanical properties and electronic structures of novel boron phases under high-pressure: a first-principles study, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6786.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Zürner, J. Kirstein, M. Döblinger, C. Bräuchle, T. Bein, Visualizing single-molecule diffusion in mesoporous materials, Nature. 450 (2007) 705–708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Walker, Happy-People-Pills For All, Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
R.T. Addo, ed., Ocular Drug Delivery: Advances, Challenges and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Hongbo, C. Liye, X. Gang, Y. Kun, Z. Lihua, S. Junna, Progress in Phytoremediating Heavy-Metal Contaminated Soils, in: I. Sherameti, A. Varma (Eds.), Detoxification of Heavy Metals, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Found: The Missing Part Of Brain’s ‘Internal Compass,’ IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Next Generation Air Transportation System: Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities and Full System Transformation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Barrios, Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Tackett, Winning? Political Bellwether Grows Tired Waiting for Trump to Deliver, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
AbbreviationJ. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
ISSN (print)0368-2048
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles