How to format your references using the Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Brower, Biomarkers: Portents of malignancy, Nature. 471 (2011) S19-21.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.L. Bonilla, A. Carpio, Materials science. Driving dislocations in graphene, Science. 337 (2012) 161–162.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Queitsch, T.A. Sangster, S. Lindquist, Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation, Nature. 417 (2002) 618–624.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.R. Asmis, N.L. Pivonka, G. Santambrogio, M. Brümmer, C. Kaposta, D.M. Neumark, L. Wöste, Gas-phase infrared spectrum of the protonated water dimer, Science. 299 (2003) 1375–1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Barnes, M. Davies, Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2009.
An edited book
P. Gontero, R.S. Kirby, C.C. Carson III, eds., Problem Based Urology, Springer, London, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Kecskemeti, M. Gergely, Á. Visegrádi, Z. Nemeth, J. Kovacs, P. Kacsuk, One Click Cloud Orchestrator: Bringing Complex Applications Effortlessly to the Clouds, in: L. Lopes, J. Žilinskas, A. Costan, R.G. Cascella, G. Kecskemeti, E. Jeannot, M. Cannataro, L. Ricci, S. Benkner, S. Petit, V. Scarano, J. Gracia, S. Hunold, S.L. Scott, S. Lankes, C. Lengauer, J. Carretero, J. Breitbart, M. Alexander (Eds.), Euro-Par 2014: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2014 International Workshops, Porto, Portugal, August 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Fully-Grown Pig Chimeras Are Only A Few Years Away – We Need To Understand Where They Stand Now, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.-Q. Ton, A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Lanchester, The Major Blind Spots in Macroeconomics, New York Times. (2017) MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
AbbreviationJ. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
ISSN (print)0368-2048
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles