How to format your references using the Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.A. Moritz, Wildfires ignite debate on global warming, Nature. 487 (2012) 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.G. Deeks, F. Barré-Sinoussi, Public health: Towards a cure for HIV, Nature. 487 (2012) 293–294.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.A. Gugliotti, D.L. Feldheim, B.E. Eaton, RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles, Science. 304 (2004) 850–852.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.C. Stenseth, A. Mysterud, G. Ottersen, J.W. Hurrell, K.-S. Chan, M. Lima, Ecological effects of climate fluctuations, Science. 297 (2002) 1292–1296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Minei, J. Lucek, MPLS-Enabled Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
N. Tavernarakis, ed., Protein Metabolism and Homeostasis in Aging, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Rousseaux, P. Saurel, J. Petit, Knowledge Engineering or Digital Humanities?, in: C. Faucher, L.C. Jain (Eds.), Innovations in Intelligent Machines-4: Recent Advances in Knowledge Engineering, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 129–187.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena.

Blog post
E. Andrew, $250 Million Increase To NASA’s Budget Next Year, IFLScience. (2014).’s-budget-next-year/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions May Help Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.G. Pezzolesi, Novel Mechanisms of PTEN Dysfunction in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Krauss, J. Schwartz, Views on State Dept. Pick Hinge on Oil Industry, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
AbbreviationJ. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
ISSN (print)0368-2048
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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