How to format your references using the Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.E. Ahlberg, Comment on “The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus,” Science. 305 (2004) 1715; author reply 1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Surani, J. Smith, Obituary: Anne McLaren (1927-2007), Nature. 448 (2007) 764–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Jaffer, I.M. Adjei, V. Labhasetwar, Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.D. Uchic, D.M. Dimiduk, J.N. Florando, W.D. Nix, Sample dimensions influence strength and crystal plasticity, Science. 305 (2004) 986–989.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Liu, S. Noppe-Brandon, Imagination First, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2011.
An edited book
P.L. Dobkin, Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C.N. Nguyen, T.H. Pham, V.H. Tran, DC Programming and DCA Approach for Resource Allocation Optimization in OFDMA/TDD Wireless Networks, in: H.A. Le Thi, N.T. Nguyen, T.V. Do (Eds.), Advanced Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications - ICCSAMA 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 49–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Finally Discover Insulin-Suppressing Hormone, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of Remanufactured Parts in the Federal Vehicle Fleet Is Based On a Variety of Factors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Bogenreif, Rachmaninoff’s Sonata For Cello and Piano: A Staple in the Cello and Piano Repertoire, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. Urbina, Tricked While on Land, Abused or Killed at Sea, New York Times. (2015) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
AbbreviationJ. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
ISSN (print)0368-2048
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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