How to format your references using the Graphs and Combinatorics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graphs and Combinatorics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kump, L.R.: Atmospheric science. Tipping pointedly colder. Science. 323, 1175–1176 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Goodell, M.A., Rando, T.A.: Stem cells and healthy aging. Science. 350, 1199–1204 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Brennan, M.D., Cheong, R., Levchenko, A.: Systems biology. How information theory handles cell signaling and uncertainty. Science. 338, 334–335 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zappacosta, D.C., Ochogavía, A.C., Rodrigo, J.M., Romero, J.R., Meier, M.S., Garbus, I., Pessino, S.C., Echenique, V.C.: Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid. Sci. Rep. 4, 4423 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S.-C., Delbruck, T., Indiveri, G., Whatley, A., Douglas, R.: Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Albers, S., Alt, H., Näher, S. eds: Efficient Algorithms: Essays Dedicated to Kurt Mehlhorn on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Seegenschmiedt, M.H., Schäfer, U.: Clinical Principles. In: Seegenschmiedt, M.H., Makoski, H.-B., Trott, K.-R., and Brady, L.W. (eds.) Radiotherapy for Non-Malignant Disorders. pp. 89–119. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graphs and Combinatorics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Amazing Video Takes You INSIDE The Largest Photograph Ever Taken


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Meal Programs: More Systematic Development of Specifications Could Improve the Safety of Foods Purchased through USDA’s Commodity Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khatib, E.: A phenomenological study on the potential impact of implementing information systems in midsize corporations, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: The Dazzle of Neon, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraphs and Combinatorics
AbbreviationGraphs Comb.
ISSN (print)0911-0119
ISSN (online)1435-5914
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles