How to format your references using the Graphs and Combinatorics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graphs and Combinatorics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coward, F.: Archaeology. Standing on the shoulders of giants. Science. 319, 1493–1495 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Duan, H., Sun, C.: Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5210 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lupp, C., Skipper, M., Weiss, U.: Gut microbes and health. Nature. 489, 219 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roerink, S.F., Sasaki, N., Lee-Six, H., Young, M.D., Alexandrov, L.B., Behjati, S., Mitchell, T.J., Grossmann, S., Lightfoot, H., Egan, D.A., Pronk, A., Smakman, N., van Gorp, J., Anderson, E., Gamble, S.J., Alder, C., van de Wetering, M., Campbell, P.J., Stratton, M.R., Clevers, H.: Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level. Nature. 556, 457–462 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandra, S.: Energy, Entropy and Engines. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Atkinson, K.: Theoretical Numerical Analysis: A Functional Analysis Framework. Springer, New York, NY (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Alhazov, A., Freund, R.: Polarizationless P Systems with One Active Membrane. In: Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A., Sempere, J.M., and Zandron, C. (eds.) Membrane Computing: 16th International Conference, CMC 2015, Valencia, Spain, August 17-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 51–62. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graphs and Combinatorics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New Drug Delivery System Could Replace Injections,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Secretary of the Senate Accountability as of March 31, 1977. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lund, B.C.: Physiological response to cycling at different pedal rates during high intensity interval training, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Fangs, Fur and Plenty of Firepower, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraphs and Combinatorics
AbbreviationGraphs Comb.
ISSN (print)0911-0119
ISSN (online)1435-5914
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles