How to format your references using the Placenta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Placenta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Wickware, Next-generation biologists must straddle computation and biology, Nature. 404 (2000) 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.C. Jewitt, J. Luu, Crystalline water ice on the Kuiper belt object (50000) Quaoar, Nature. 432 (2004) 731–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Li, Y. Yang, J.D. Ashwell, TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2, Nature. 416 (2002) 345–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, A.-N. Zhang, T. Yang, H.J. Briegel, J.-W. Pan, Experimental demonstration of five-photon entanglement and open-destination teleportation, Nature. 430 (2004) 54–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Gramß, S. Bornholdt, M. Groß, M. Mitchell, T. Pellizzari, Non-Standard Computation, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
M.E. Johnson, ed., Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Diatta, P. Giblin, Pre-symmetry Sets of 3D Shapes, in: O. Fogh Olsen, L. Florack, A. Kuijper (Eds.), Deep Structure, Singularities, and Computer Vision: First International Workshop, DSSCV 2005, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 9-10, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Placenta.

Blog post
J. Fang, You Have Flies to Thank for That Pleasing Beer Smell, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Selected Aspects of The Management and Operation of Tracking and Data Acquisition Stations at Goldstone, California, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. Best, Beneath the Silence, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. Schweber, J. Barron, Lining Up for the Final Drops of New Jersey’s Cheaper Gas, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlacenta
ISSN (print)0143-4004
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Reproductive Medicine

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