How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’shea, T. J. (2000). PCBs Not to Blame. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5473), 1965d–6d.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruocco, G., & Fratalocchi, A. (2014). Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits. Scientific reports, 4, 7088.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelber, A., Balkenius, A., & Warrant, E. J. (2002). Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths. Nature, 419(6910), 922–925.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Reinhart, B. J., Slack, F. J., Basson, M., Pasquinelli, A. E., Bettinger, J. C., Rougvie, A. E., et al. (2000). The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature, 403(6772), 901–906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O., Petit, J.-P., & Gurle, D. (2005). IP Telephony. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Haidle, M. N., Conard, N. J., & Bolus, M. (Eds.). (2016). The Nature of Culture: Based on an Interdisciplinary Symposium ‘The Nature of Culture’, Tübingen, Germany (1st ed. 2016.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohamed, E., & Mohamed, E. (2016). Islamists and New Media: The Muslim Brotherhood Digital Presence in English. In A. Douai & M. Ben Moussa (Eds.), Mediated Identities and New Journalism in the Arab World: Mapping the “Arab Spring” (pp. 61–81). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, February 23). Awesome X-Ray View Of A Man Swallowing. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Suggested Areas for Oversight for the 110th Congress (No. GAO-07-235R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coar, H. (2010). Using mandalas to support grieving female adolescents: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, June 19). A Case That Reverberates In Inkblot-Like Districts. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’shea 2000).
This sentence cites two references (O’shea 2000; Ruocco and Fratalocchi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruocco and Fratalocchi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Reinhart et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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