How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. (2010). World view: Brick by brick. Nature, 465(7294), 29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Douvris, C., & Ozerov, O. V. (2008). Hydrodefluorination of perfluoroalkyl groups using silylium-carborane catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5893), 1188–1190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao, G., Guo, X., & Goff, S. P. (2002). Inhibition of retroviral RNA production by ZAP, a CCCH-type zinc finger protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5587), 1703–1706.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, K., Gao, N., Wang, C., Chen, X., Li, J., Li, S., et al. (2014). Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons. Scientific reports, 4, 4380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldi, P., Frasconi, P., & Smyth, P. (2002). Modeling the Internet and the Web: Probabilistic Methods and Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Preston, V. (Ed.). (2007). Lewis & Clark: Weather and Climate Data from the Expedition Journals. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society.
A chapter in an edited book
Komorowski, T., Landim, C., & Olla, S. (2012). Bounds and Variational Principles for the Asymptotic Variance. In C. Landim & S. Olla (Eds.), Fluctuations in Markov Processes: Time Symmetry and Martingale Approximation (pp. 137–151). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, August 3). Dinosaurs Saw The World In Shades Of Red. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Weaknesses in School Districts’ Implementation of the Emergency School Assistance Program (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda, E. S. (2017). American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, February 10). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 21 Miners Killed In Blast. New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Douvris and Ozerov 2008; Sarewitz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Douvris and Ozerov 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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