How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levinger, N. E. (2002). Chemistry. Water in confinement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5599), 1722–1723.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovanoli, S., & Meyer, U. (2013). Response to comment on “Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6134), 811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lonsdorf, E. V., Eberly, L. E., & Pusey, A. E. (2004). Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature, 428(6984), 715–716.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Taleyarkhan, R. P., West, C. D., Cho, J. S., Lahey, R. T., Jr, Nigmatulin, R. I., & Block, R. C. (2002). Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1868–1873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon, C., & Hale, R. (2012). Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Soudris, D., & Jantsch, A. (Eds.). (2012). Scalable Multi-core Architectures: Design Methodologies and Tools (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marek, V. W., & Truszczynski, M. (2007). Rough Sets and Approximation Schemes. In M. Kryszkiewicz, J. F. Peters, H. Rybinski, & A. Skowron (Eds.), Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems Paradigms: International Conference, RSEISP 2007, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 22–28). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 3). Cockatoos Learn How To Make and Use Tools From Each Other. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations (No. GAO-01-963). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Currano, L. J. (2010). Latching microelectromechanical shock sensor systems: Design, modeling, and experiments (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2008, February 24). New Group Chooses Its First Battle, Asthma. New York Times, p. LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levinger 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Giovanoli and Meyer 2013; Levinger 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giovanoli and Meyer 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Taleyarkhan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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