How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baughman, R. H. (2003). Auxetic materials: avoiding the shrink. Nature, 425(6959), 667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall, P. S., & Kincaid, C. (2001). Diapiric flow at subduction zones: a recipe for rapid transport. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5526), 2472–2475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Costello, C., Gaines, S., & Gerber, L. R. (2012). Conservation science: A market approach to saving the whales. Nature, 481(7380), 139–140.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maroun, F., Ozanam, F., Magnussen, O. M., & Behm, R. J. (2001). The role of atomic ensembles in the reactivity of bimetallic electrocatalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1811–1814.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, C. (2006). Electricity Markets. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Jacobson, M. J. (2009). Solving the Pell Equation. (H. C. Williams, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Frápolli, M. J. (2012). The Neutrality of Truth in the Debate Realism vs. Anti-realism. In S. Rahman, G. Primiero, & M. Marion (Eds.), The Realism-Antirealism Debate in the Age of Alternative Logics (pp. 85–99). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 11). Doctors Hope To Convert Fat Into Ears. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Polar Satellites: Agencies Need to Address Potential Gaps in Weather and Climate Data Coverage (No. GAO-11-945T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, J. (2017). Catherine of Siena: No Saint Is an Island (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2017, September 16). Powerful Woman? Yes. ‘Feminist’? No. New York Times, p. SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baughman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Baughman 2003; Hall and Kincaid 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hall and Kincaid 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Maroun et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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