How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parkes, R. J. (2000). A case of bacterial immortality? Nature, 407(6806), 844–845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindenbach, B. D., & Rice, C. M. (2005). Unravelling hepatitis C virus replication from genome to function. Nature, 436(7053), 933–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagao, K., Adachi, Y., & Yanagida, M. (2004). Separase-mediated cleavage of cohesin at interphase is required for DNA repair. Nature, 430(7003), 1044–1048.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Feng, Y., Lin, X., Yu, Y., Zhang, H., Chu, H., & Zhu, J. (2013). Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community. Scientific reports, 3, 3193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mittleman, A. L. (2011). A Short History of Jewish Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Cervantes, L. (2016). Hierarchical Type-2 Fuzzy Aggregation of Fuzzy Controllers. (O. Castillo, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Brame, A., & Jones, A. (2009). Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease. In A. McLuckie (Ed.), Respiratory Disease and its Management (pp. 41–49). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 9). Earthquakes Beneath Mount St. Helens Indicate Magma Chamber Is Recharging. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration (No. GAO-08-1174T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, B. D. (2009). An ethnographic case study of teachers who are alumni of the private day school for boys in which they teach (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017, June 17). Trump the Transparent. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parkes 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lindenbach and Rice 2005; Parkes 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lindenbach and Rice 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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