How to format your references using the Journal of Educational Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Educational Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kubas, G. J. (2006). Chemistry. Breaking the H2 marriage and reuniting the couple. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1096–1097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irvine, R. F., & Denton, R. M. (2011). Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6057), 770–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bali, E., Audétat, A., & Keppler, H. (2013). Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth’s mantle. Nature, 495(7440), 220–222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seol, J. H., Jo, I., Moore, A. L., Lindsay, L., Aitken, Z. H., Pettes, M. T., et al. (2010). Two-dimensional phonon transport in supported graphene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5975), 213–216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie, B., Njikizana, T., Coetsee, D., Chamboko, R., Colyvas, B., Hanekom, B., & Selbst, E. (2014). 2014 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Isaías, P., Spector, J. M., Ifenthaler, D., & Sampson, D. G. (Eds.). (2015). E-Learning Systems, Environments and Approaches: Theory and Implementation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Scott, J., & Stoeckli, E. (2012). Skin And Environment. In J. Scott & E. Stoeckli (Eds.), Neuromedia: Art and Neuroscience Research (pp. 117–144). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Educational Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 11). Video shows that seahorses are master assassins of the ocean. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1969). Useful Techniques for Examining Automated Data Processing Systems (No. 091168). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packard, J. A. (2008). Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, April 7). Eleanor’s Encouragement. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kubas 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Irvine and Denton 2011; Kubas 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irvine and Denton 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Seol et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Educational Change
AbbreviationJ. Educ. Chang.
ISSN (print)1389-2843
ISSN (online)1573-1812

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