How to format your references using the Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramirez, A. P.: Applied physics. Oxide electronics emerge, Science, 315, 1377–1378, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Batistatou, A. and Charalabopoulos, K.: The picture of Oscar X, Nature, 455, 834, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, Y., Shi, Y., and Ding, S.: A chemical approach to stem-cell biology and regenerative medicine, Nature, 453, 338–344, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Takacs, C. M., Baird, J. R., Hughes, E. G., Kent, S. S., Benchabane, H., Paik, R., and Ahmed, Y.: Dual positive and negative regulation of wingless signaling by adenomatous polyposis coli, Science, 319, 333–336, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minenna, M.: The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Johnson, G. and Dempster, N. (Eds.): Leadership in Diverse Learning Contexts, Springer International Publishing, Cham, XVI, 430 p. 17 illus., 11 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Pratt, W. B., Morishima, Y., Murphy, M., and Harrell, M.: Chaperoning of Glucocorticoid Receptors, in: Molecular Chaperones in Health and Disease, edited by: Starke, K. and Gaestel, M., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 111–138, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions.

Blog post
Seven Sperm Whales Mysteriously Found Dead On Australian Beach:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Meal Programs: Revenue and Expense Information from Selected States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivers, M.: Bridging the knowledge gap between the Baby Boomers and the multigenerations, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B.: Law Firm Stocks Ranks With Ex-Federal Officials, New York Times, 12th April, B5, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramirez, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ramirez, 2007; Batistatou and Charalabopoulos, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Batistatou and Charalabopoulos, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Takacs et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions
ISSN (online)2193-0872

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