How to format your references using the Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cornet, F. H.: SEISMOLOGY. Earthquakes induced by fluid injections, Science, 348, 1204–1205, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang, P. and Beauchamp, G. K.: Evolution. Sensing nectar’s sweetness, Science, 345, 878–879, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rowe, T., McBride, E. F., and Sereno, P. C.: Dinosaur with a heart of stone, Science, 291, 783, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Harris, K. D., Henze, D. A., Hirase, H., Leinekugel, X., Dragoi, G., Czurkó, A., and Buzsáki, G.: Spike train dynamics predicts theta-related phase precession in hippocampal pyramidal cells, Nature, 417, 738–741, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zlokarnik, M.: Scale-up, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
McMillan, D. B. (Ed.): Fish Histology: Female Reproductive Systems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, IX, 598 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Papadimitriou, I.: Lectures on Holographic Renormalization, in: Theoretical Frontiers in Black Holes and Cosmology: Theoretical Perspective in High Energy Physics, edited by: Kallosh, R. and Orazi, E., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 131–181, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions.

Blog post
Little Hedgehog Who Lost His Spikes Being Kept Cozy Until They Grow Back:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Checked Baggage Screening: TSA Has Deployed Optimal Systems at the Majority of TSA-Regulated Airports, but Could Strengthen Cost Estimates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuehling, A. L.: “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Village Moves to Deter Illegal Housing, New York Times, 12th August, LI9, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cornet, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cornet, 2015; Jiang and Beauchamp, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiang and Beauchamp, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions
ISSN (online)2193-0872

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