How to format your references using the Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumberg, B. S.: Obituary: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008), Nature, 452, 422, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Machlis, G. E. and McNutt, M. K.: Disasters. Scenario-building for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Science, 329, 1018–1019, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulligan, C. J., Kitchen, A., and Miyamoto, M. M.: Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals,” Science, 314, 1390, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Qiu, X., Kumbalasiri, T., Carlson, S. M., Wong, K. Y., Krishna, V., Provencio, I., and Berson, D. M.: Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin, Nature, 433, 745–749, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, P.: Structural Design of Buildings, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Doris, K.: Wide-Bandwidth High-Dynamic Range D/A Converters, edited by: van Roermund, A. and Leenaerts, D., Springer US, Boston, MA, XVIII, 202 p pp., 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehký, D. and Šomodíková, M.: Reliability Analysis of Post-Tensioned Bridge Using Artificial Neural Network-Based Surrogate Model, in: Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 16th International Conference, EANN 2015, Rhodes, Greece, September 25-28 2015.Proceedings, edited by: Iliadis, L. and Jayne, C., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 35–44, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions.

Blog post
Millions Of Parasitic Wasps Released In The US In Attempt To Control Invasive Beetle:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Spectrum Management: Further Consideration of Options to Improve Receiver Performance Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski, R. M.: Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A.: A Trail of Masterpieces and a Web of Lies, Leading to Anguish, New York Times, 27th July, A1, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blumberg, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blumberg, 2008; Machlis and McNutt, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Machlis and McNutt, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions
ISSN (online)2193-0872

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