How to format your references using the Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Come together, Nature, 434(7030), 252–253, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowan, C. A. and Henkemeyer, M.: The SH2/SH3 adaptor Grb4 transduces B-ephrin reverse signals, Nature, 413(6852), 174–179, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J.-B., Ye, K. and Patel, D. J.: Structural basis for overhang-specific small interfering RNA recognition by the PAZ domain, Nature, 429(6989), 318–322, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Falkovich, G., Weinberg, A., Denissenko, P. and Lukaschuk, S.: Surface tension: floater clustering in a standing wave, Nature, 435(7045), 1045–1046, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R.: Industrielle Feuchtemessung, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG., 2003.
An edited book
Cao, D. and White, S., Eds.: Animal Law and Welfare - International Perspectives, 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmahl, W. W., Kocsis, B., Toncala, A. and Grupe, G.: Mineralogic Characterisation of Archaeological Bone, in Isotopic Landscapes in Bioarchaeology, edited by G. Grupe and G. C. McGlynn, pp. 91–110, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: SpaceX May Start Launching Rockets Again On December 16, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Infrastructure: Issues for Congressional Consideration During Reauthorization of Surface Transportation Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janice, J.: Preschoolers’ Prosocial Responding to Social Others’ Distress, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L.: Greasing a Squeaky Wheel, New York Times, 13th March, D3, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cowan and Henkemeyer, 2001; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowan and Henkemeyer, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Falkovich et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions
ISSN (online)2193-0872

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