How to format your references using the Journal of Ecotourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecotourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, D. (2012). Policy reform: Strengthen and stabilize the FDA. Nature, 485(7397), 169–170.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santolík, O., & Chum, J. (2009). Planetary science. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 729–730.
A journal article with 3 authors
García-Ruiz, J. M., Melero-García, E., & Hyde, S. T. (2009). Morphogenesis of self-assembled nanocrystalline materials of barium carbonate and silica. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5912), 362–365.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bethke, A., Fielenbach, N., Wang, Z., Mangelsdorf, D. J., & Antebi, A. (2009). Nuclear hormone receptor regulation of microRNAs controls developmental progression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 95–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Westermeier, R. (2004). Electrophoresis in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bornstein, B. H., & Tomkins, A. J. (Eds.). (2015). Motivating Cooperation and Compliance with Authority: The Role of Institutional Trust (Vol. 62). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sesham, S., & Sabat, S. L. (2015). Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks. In A. K. Mishra & D. L. Johnson (Eds.), White Space Communication: Advances, Developments and Engineering Challenges (pp. 117–151). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecotourism.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 21). “Us Versus Them” Root Of Racist Behavior Found In Old World Primates. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). NASA Supplier Base: Challenges Exist in Transitioning from the Space Shuttle Program to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems (GAO-07-940). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerina, J. (2012). The call of public service: Motivation and professional commitment in education [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, January 14). Defections Fuel A Complicated Rivalry. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Carpenter, 2012; Santolík & Chum, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santolík & Chum, 2009)
  • Three authors: (García-Ruiz et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bethke et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecotourism
AbbreviationJ. Ecotourism
ISSN (print)1472-4049
ISSN (online)1747-7638
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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