How to format your references using the Journal of Ecotourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecotourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaetz, T. (2015). Quantum physics: Entanglement beyond identical ions. Nature, 528(7582), 337–338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph, S. B., & Swanstrom, R. (2014). HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6193), 136–137.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rodell, M., Velicogna, I., & Famiglietti, J. S. (2009). Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature, 460(7258), 999–1002.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, M., Leung, K.-H., Lin, S., Chan, D. S.-H., Kwong, D. W. J., Leung, C.-H., & Ma, D.-L. (2014). A colorimetric chemosensor for Cu2+ ion detection based on an iridium(III) complex. Scientific Reports, 4, 6794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez, J. (2015). Accounting for Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhu, Y. (2015). Transforming Rural Communities in China and Beyond: Community Entrepreneurship and Enterprises, Infrastructure Development and Investment Modes. (H. Lan, D. A. Ness, K. Xing, K. Schneider, S.-H. Lee, & J. Ge, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Laghi, A., Paolantonio, P., & Lucchesi, P. (2008). Protocolli di studio e considerazioni dosimetriche. In R. Passariello (Ed.), La colonscopia virtuale (pp. 55–66). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecotourism.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 15). Why Sad Songs Say So Much (To Some People, But Not Others). Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Why Performance of Automatic Voice Network (AUTOVON) Service Needs Improvement (No. B-169857). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, W. A. (2010). Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver, N. (2012, September 7). The Weatherman Is Not a Moron. New York Times, p. MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schaetz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Joseph & Swanstrom, 2014; Schaetz, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joseph & Swanstrom, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Rodell, Velicogna, & Famiglietti, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecotourism
AbbreviationJ. Ecotourism
ISSN (print)1472-4049
ISSN (online)1747-7638
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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