How to format your references using the Journal of Ecotourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecotourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2001). Ecologists score victory over controversial dyke project. Nature, 410(6829), 619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hogan, D. A., & Kolter, R. (2002). Pseudomonas-Candida interactions: an ecological role for virulence factors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2229–2232.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahrestani, F. S., Hebblewhite, M., & Post, E. (2013). The importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations. Scientific Reports, 3, 3125.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Povelones, M., Waterhouse, R. M., Kafatos, F. C., & Christophides, G. K. (2009). Leucine-rich repeat protein complex activates mosquito complement in defense against Plasmodium parasites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 258–261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boutillier, S., Carré, D., & Levratto, N. (2016). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gärtner, B. (2012). Approximation Algorithms and Semidefinite Programming (J. Matousek, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, J. V., Horvath, D. P., Chao, W. S., & Foley, M. E. (2010). Bud Dormancy in Perennial Plants: A Mechanism for Survival. In E. Lubzens, J. Cerda, & M. Clark (Eds.), Dormancy and Resistance in Harsh Environments (pp. 69–90). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecotourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 14). Injecting Bacteria Can Shrink Tumors. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Department of Energy: Problems in the Management and Use of Supercomputers (T-RCED-99-257). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D. (2017). A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stack, L., & Healy, J. (2015, December 4). They Shared Their Working Hours, and Their Dying Moments. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2001; Hogan & Kolter, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hogan & Kolter, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ahrestani et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Povelones et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecotourism
AbbreviationJ. Ecotourism
ISSN (print)1472-4049
ISSN (online)1747-7638
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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