How to format your references using the Journal of Ecotourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecotourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunk, S. (2002). Tearing down the barriers. Nature, 416(6880), 4–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire, J. J., & Beroza, G. C. (2012). Geophysics. A rogue earthquake off Sumatra. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1118–1119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koga, K., Tanaka, H., & Zeng, X. C. (2000). First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases. Nature, 408(6812), 564–567.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Spence, J. R., Mayhew, C. N., Rankin, S. A., Kuhar, M. F., Vallance, J. E., Tolle, K., … Wells, J. M. (2011). Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intestinal tissue in vitro. Nature, 470(7332), 105–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mashadi, B., & Crolla, D. (2012). Vehicle Powertrain Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zia, T., Zomaya, A., Varadharajan, V., & Mao, M. (Eds.). (2013). Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 9th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2013, Sydney, NSW, Australia, September 25-28, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 127). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bravenboer, M., & Visser, E. (2008). Designing Syntax Embeddings and Assimilations for Language Libraries. In H. Giese (Ed.), Models in Software Engineering: Workshops and Symposia at MoDELS 2007, Nashville, TN, USA, September 30 - October 5, 2007, Reports and Revised Selected Papers (pp. 34–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecotourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 4). There Are Better Ways To Quantify How Big And Bad A Hurricane Is. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Telecommunications: Greater Involvement Needed by FCC in the Management and Oversight of the E-Rate Program (No. GAO-05-151). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R. (2008). Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rice, S. E. (2017, June 2). To Be Great, America Must Be Good. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brenner, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Leonard, 2007; Levitt, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGuire & Beroza, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Koga, Tanaka, & Zeng, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shibata et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecotourism
AbbreviationJ. Ecotourism
ISSN (print)1472-4049
ISSN (online)1747-7638
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles