How to format your references using the Journal of Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R. (2000). IRANIAN SCIENCE: Earthquake Researchers Prepare for the Next Big One. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castanotto, D., & Rossi, J. J. (2009). The promises and pitfalls of RNA-interference-based therapeutics. Nature, 457(7228), 426–433.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sim, M. S., Bosak, T., & Ono, S. (2011). Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6038), 74–77.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, C., Wong, A., Zhang, Y., Ni, X., & Li, X. (2014). Common and unique cis-acting elements mediate xanthotoxin and flavone induction of the generalist P450 CYP321A1. Scientific Reports, 4, 6490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D., Fatu, A., & Souchet, D. (2014). Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brandes, U., & Erlebach, T. (Eds.). (2005). Network Analysis: Methodological Foundations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw, R. H., & Sherwood, J. A. (2006). Experimental Investigations of the Relationship of Baseball Bat Properties on Batted-Ball Performance. In E. F. Moritz & S. Haake (Eds.), The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 1: Developments for Sports (pp. 17–22). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, December 28). Newton’s Apple Tree Genome Sequenced For Comparison With Modern Trees.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). National Airspace System: Questions Concerning FAA’s Wide Area Augmentation System (No. RCED-97-219R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClinton, B. E. (2010). Preparing for the third age: A retirement planning course outline for lifelong learning programs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, January 19). Justices Will Hear Liability Cases With Federal-State Disparity at Issue. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Castanotto & Rossi, 2009; Koenig, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Castanotto & Rossi, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Sim, Bosak, & Ono, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang, Wong, Zhang, Ni, & Li, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0022-0477
ISSN (online)1365-2745
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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