How to format your references using the Journal of Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brower, V. (2011). Epigenetics: Unravelling the cancer code. Nature, 471(7339), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fauci, A. S., & Collins, F. S. (2012). Benefits and risks of influenza research: lessons learned. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088), 1522–1523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duijn, P. A. C., Kashirin, V., & Sloot, P. M. A. (2014). The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption. Scientific Reports, 4, 4238.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Urbakh, M., Klafter, J., Gourdon, D., & Israelachvili, J. (2004). The nonlinear nature of friction. Nature, 430(6999), 525–528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corrigan, P. W., Roe, D., & Tsang, H. W. H. (2011). Challenging the Stigma of Mental Illness. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gnedin, N. Y. (2016). Star Formation in Galaxy Evolution: Connecting Numerical Models to Reality: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 43. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (1st ed. 2016; S. C. O. Glover, R. S. Klessen, V. Springel, Y. Revaz, P. Jablonka, R. Teyssier, & L. Mayer, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, Y., & Jamil, S. (2012). Beyond Efficiency: China’s Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Initiatives vis-à-vis Human Development. In M. Caballero-Anthony, Y. Chang, & N. A. Putra (Eds.), Rethinking Energy Security in Asia: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security (pp. 79–98). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, September 28). Meditation And Vacations Can Alter Your Gene Expression To Protect Against Aging. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Highway Contracting: Assessing Fraud and Abuse in FHwA’s Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program (No. RCED-89-26). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jategaonkar, S. P. (2009). Two essays on stock repurchases and insider trading (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink, S., & Risen, J. (2016, November 28). Suit Aims to Hold Contractors Accountable for C.I.A. Torture. New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brower, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brower, 2011; Fauci & Collins, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fauci & Collins, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Duijn, Kashirin, & Sloot, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Urbakh, Klafter, Gourdon, & Israelachvili, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0022-0477
ISSN (online)1365-2745
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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