How to format your references using the Journal of Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb, S. C. (2007). The Earth’s “hum” is driven by ocean waves over the continental shelves. Nature, 445(7129), 754–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hibbs, R. E., & Gouaux, E. (2011). Principles of activation and permeation in an anion-selective Cys-loop receptor. Nature, 474(7349), 54–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rai, V. K., Jackson, T. L., & Thiemens, M. H. (2005). Photochemical mass-independent sulfur isotopes in achondritic meteorites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1062–1065.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Christoffels, V. M., Grieskamp, T., Norden, J., Mommersteeg, M. T. M., Rudat, C., & Kispert, A. (2009). Tbx18 and the fate of epicardial progenitors. Nature, 458(7240), E8-9; discussion E9-10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mcphee, J. E. (2014). Mastering Strategic Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ganzha, M., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.). (2013). Multiagent Systems and Applications: Volume 1:Practice and Experience. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Emigh, R. J., Riley, D., & Ahmed, P. (2016). Regionalism, Nationalism, and the Italian Censuses. In D. Riley & P. Ahmed (Eds.), Changes in Censuses from Imperialist to Welfare States: How Societies and States Count (pp. 83–113). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). Here’s What London’s Underground System Actually Looks Like.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Comments on the Proposed “Uniform Federal Research and Development Utilization Act of 1977” (No. PSAD-77-164). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meghani, H. P. (2017). Med-Equip Solutions LLC: A wheelchair distributor company business plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, May 19). A Guide to Writing Guides. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webb, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hibbs & Gouaux, 2011; Webb, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hibbs & Gouaux, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Rai, Jackson, & Thiemens, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Christoffels et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0022-0477
ISSN (online)1365-2745
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles