How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. J. Finlay, “Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5570, pp. 1061–1063, May 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Kong and C. Ma, “Acquisition of ephemeral module in roots: a new view and test,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5078, May 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Xie, H. Wang, and J. Wu, “Similar morphological and molecular signatures shared by female and male germline stem cells,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5580, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. R. Piperno, A. J. Ranere, I. Holst, and P. Hansell, “Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6806, pp. 894–897, Oct. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Fight, Understanding International Bank Risk. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.
An edited book
M. A. Sutton, K. E. Mason, L. J. Sheppard, H. Sverdrup, R. Haeuber, and W. K. Hicks, Eds., Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Reichmuth, “Psychophysical Studies of Auditory Masking in Marine Mammals: Key Concepts and New Directions,” in The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, A. N. Popper and A. Hawkins, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2012, pp. 23–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Your Devices’ Latest Feature? They Can Spy On Your Every Move,” IFLScience, Apr. 26, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges for Transforming Into a High-Performing Organization,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-770T, May 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. C. Hilton, “Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin and S. Maheshwari, “Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV,” New York Times, p. B1, May 14, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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