How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. L. Blanchard, “Climate change: A rewired food web,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7577, pp. 173–174, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Elsner and B. Abel, “Ultrafast high-resolution mass spectrometric finger pore imaging in latent finger prints,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6905, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Torsvik, L. Øvreås, and T. F. Thingstad, “Prokaryotic diversity--magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5570, pp. 1064–1066, May 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Abzhanov, W. P. Kuo, C. Hartmann, B. R. Grant, P. R. Grant, and C. J. Tabin, “The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin’s finches,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7102, pp. 563–567, Aug. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. M. Carroll, C. Bowyer-Crane, F. J. Duff, C. Hulme, and M. J. Snowling, Developing Language and Literacy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
K. Kanosue, T. Nagami, and J. Tsuchiya, Eds., Sports Performance, 1st ed. 2015. 1st ed. 2015.Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Amaris, M. Alonso, and C. A. Ortega, “Voltage Stability in Power Networks with Wind Power Generation,” in Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation, M. Alonso and C. Alvarez Ortega, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Energy. London: Springer, 2013, pp. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Alzheimer’s Drug Could Be Used To Naturally Regenerate Teeth,” IFLScience, Jan. 09, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: DOD’s Acquisition Policies and Guidance Need to Incorporate Additional Best Practices and Controls,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-722, Jul. 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. K. Eisenbeiser, “Parents’ Experience of Involvement in the Lives of Community College Students: A Phenomenological Study,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Schwartz, “Fatal Blows: Kind to the Planet, Not to Bats,” New York Times, p. D2, Nov. 07, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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