How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. M. Perkel, “Lab-inventory management: Time to take stock,” Nature, vol. 524, no. 7563, pp. 125–126, Aug. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. W. Langelaan and N. Roy, “Engineering. Enabling new missions for robotic aircraft,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5960, pp. 1642–1644, Dec. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. D. Westover, D. A. Bushnell, and R. D. Kornberg, “Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5660, pp. 1014–1016, Feb. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.-M. Lagrange et al., “A giant planet imaged in the disk of the young star beta Pictoris,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5987, pp. 57–59, Jul. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Gatarek, P. Bachert, and R. Maksymiuk, The LIBOR Market Model in Practice. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2007.
An edited book
J. A. Buchmann, Introduction to Public Key Infrastructures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Nerland and K. Jensen, “Objectual Practice and Learning in Professional Work,” in Learning Through Practice: Models, Traditions, Orientations and Approaches, S. Billett, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, pp. 82–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Here’s How We Can Save The Car – And The Planet At The Same Time,” IFLScience, Aug. 04, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Small Business: Proposed Amendments to the Small Business Innovation Research Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-89-173, Jun. 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Chung, “Quasi-one-dimensional modeling of an adiabatic-compression preheated Ludwieg tube,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “Hispanic Contingent in Congress Asks Treasury to Prevent ‘Catastrophe’ in Puerto Rico,” New York Times, p. B3, Sep. 15, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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