How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Billups, “Climate science: timing is everything during deglaciations,” Nature, vol. 522, no. 7555, pp. 163–164, Jun. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hirschberg and C. D. Manning, “Advances in natural language processing,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6245, pp. 261–266, Jul. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. H. Ahn, K. M. Rabe, and J.-M. Triscone, “Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale: local polarization in oxide thin films and heterostructures,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5657, pp. 488–491, Jan. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Leucci et al., “microRNA-9 targets the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 for degradation in the nucleus,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2535, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Smilansky, 10 Moral Paradoxes. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007.
An edited book
R. Bartl, Bisphosphonates in Medical Practice: Actions — Side Effects — Indications — Strategies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Delerablée, P. Paillier, and D. Pointcheval, “Fully Collusion Secure Dynamic Broadcast Encryption with Constant-Size Ciphertexts or Decryption Keys,” in Pairing-Based Cryptography – Pairing 2007: First International Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 2-4, 2007. Proceedings, T. Takagi, T. Okamoto, E. Okamoto, and T. Okamoto, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 39–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “Boeing Has Unveiled Its Stylish New Spacesuit For Its Upcoming Space Missions,” IFLScience, 26-Jan-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Satellite Control Systems: Opportunity for DOD to Implement Space Policy and Integrate Capabilities,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-99-81, May 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. W. Bratton, “Clinical management and outcomes of patients in the Duke Cryptococcosis Clinical Cohort, 1996 - 2009,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “A World of Ways To Get That Grilled Taste,” New York Times, p. NJ11, 15-Nov-2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [1].
This sentence cites four references [1], [1], [1], [1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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