How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Kojevnikov, “Russian science: the little ball made science bigger,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7162, p. 542, Oct. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. K. Praetorius and A. C. Mix, “Paleoclimate. Synchronization of North Pacific and Greenland climates preceded abrupt deglacial warming,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6195, pp. 444–448, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. E. Ahlberg, J. A. Clack, and H. Blom, “The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7055, pp. 137–140, Sep. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Lee, S. Cho, S. H. Park, A. J. Heeger, C.-W. Lee, and S.-H. Lee, “Metallic transport in polyaniline,” Nature, vol. 441, no. 7089, pp. 65–68, May 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. S. Saghyan and P. Langer, Asymmetric Synthesis of Non&;#x02010;Proteinogenic Amino Acids. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley&;#x02010;VCH Verlag GmbH &;#38; Co. KGaA, 2016.
An edited book
S. Haddad and L. Pomello, Eds., Application and Theory of Petri Nets: 33rd International Conference, PETRI NETS 2012, Hamburg, Germany, June 25-29, 2012. Proceedings, vol. 7347. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Taibi, “A Framework for Technology Cooperation for the Successful Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in Pacific Island Countries and Territories,” in Climate-Smart Technologies: Integrating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Mitigation and Adaptation Responses, W. Leal Filho, F. Mannke, R. Mohee, V. Schulte, and D. Surroop, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Woolly Mammoths Suffered Major Birth Defects Before Extinction,” IFLScience, 25-Mar-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aircraft Maintenance: Additional FAA Oversight Needed of Aging Aircraft Repairs (Vol. I),” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-91-91A, May 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Lama, “Optimized Veterinary Thermographic Image Classification using Support Vector Machines and Noise Mitigation,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “M.L.S. Takes the Next Step, but Its Fans Are One Ahead,” New York Times, p. B10, 25-Mar-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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