How to format your references using the Journal of Display Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Display Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. P. Russell, “Polymer dynamics. Chance encounters,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5529, pp. 446–447, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. A. J. O’Neill and D. G. Hardie, “Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation,” Nature, vol. 493, no. 7432, pp. 346–355, Jan. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.-W. Lin, C.-S. Dai, and K.-C. Hung, “High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7274, Dec. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Yue, T.-X. Jiang, R. B. Widelitz, and C.-M. Chuong, “Mapping stem cell activities in the feather follicle,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7070, pp. 1026–1029, Dec. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. S. Means, Green Building: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
R. Rajendram, V. R. Preedy, and V. B. Patel, Eds., Diet and Nutrition in Critical Care. New York, NY: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Chapin and K. Nowakowski, “‘A Kind of Bee-Hive’: Thomas Paine and the Pennsylvania Magazine,” in New Directions in Thomas Paine Studies, S. Cleary and I. L. Stabell, Eds., New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016, pp. 51–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Display Technology.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “How Powerful Was A T. Rex’s Bite? Science Now Has An Answer For You..,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Army Aviation Testing: Need to Reassess Consolidation Plan,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-96-87, Mar. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. A. Garcia, “Tracking chemistry self-efficacy and achievement in a preparatory chemistry course,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. B. Stewart, “More College Rankings, More Confusing Results,” New York Times, p. B1, Oct. 20, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Display Technology
AbbreviationJ. Display Technol.
ISSN (print)1551-319X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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