How to format your references using the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cui, W.: Astronomy. Very energetic gamma rays from microblazars. Science. 309, 714–715 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Green, C.B., Menaker, M.: Circadian rhythms. Clocks on the brain. Science. 301, 319–320 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Soares, L., Parisi, M., Bonini, N.M.: Axon injury and regeneration in the adult Drosophila. Sci. Rep. 4, 6199 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Audero, E., Coppi, E., Mlinar, B., Rossetti, T., Caprioli, A., Banchaabouchi, M.A., Corradetti, R., Gross, C.: Sporadic autonomic dysregulation and death associated with excessive serotonin autoinhibition. Science. 321, 130–133 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M.R., Chhetri, A.B., Khan, M.M.: The Greening of Petroleum Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Anagnostopoulos, C.D., Nihoyannopoulos, P., Bax, J.J., Wall, E. van der eds: Noninvasive Imaging of Myocardial Ischemia. Springer, London (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Bloss, C.S., Bakken, T.E., Joyner, A.H., Schork, N.J.: Leveraging High-Dimensional Neuroimaging Data in Genetic Studies of Neuropsychiatric Disease. In: Ritsner, M.S. (ed.) The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers, Endophenotypes and Genes: Neuropsychological Endophenotypes and Biomarkers. pp. 87–102. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: The Word “Science” Has Disappeared From The EPA’s Mission Statement,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Kennedy Space Center: Decision on Photographic Requirements Appears Justified. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomlinson, K.L.: Working with the imaginal: Art-making and dialogue with figures of soul, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J.: A Modern Masterpiece Turns 25, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher-Order and Symbolic Computation
ISSN (print)1388-3690
ISSN (online)1573-0557
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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