How to format your references using the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arthur, C.: Academics should not remain silent on hacking. Nature. 504, 333 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sholl, D.S., Johnson, J.K.: Materials science. Making high-flux membranes with carbon nanotubes. Science. 312, 1003–1004 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Richland, L.E., Zur, O., Holyoak, K.J.: Mathematics. Cognitive supports for analogies in the mathematics classroom. Science. 316, 1128–1129 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Serruya, M.D., Hatsopoulos, N.G., Paninski, L., Fellows, M.R., Donoghue, J.P.: Instant neural control of a movement signal. Nature. 416, 141–142 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, I., Gaudard, M.A., Stephens, M.L.: Visual Six Sigma, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Cavalieri, P. ed: Philosophy and the Politics of Animal Liberation. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Ndoye, B., Cleenwerck, I., Destain, J., Guiro, A.T., Thonart, P.: Preservation of Vinegar Acetic Acid Bacteria. In: Solieri, L. and Giudici, P. (eds.) Vinegars of the World. pp. 61–71. Springer, Milano (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: NASA Delays First Manned Mission Of Mars-Bound Orion Spacecraft To 2023,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on the Federal Communications Commission’s Implementation of Section 254(h) of the Communications Act of 1934]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry, G.C.: Students’ experiences with simulation education, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meacham, J.: The Man to Blame for Our Culture of Fame, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher-Order and Symbolic Computation
ISSN (print)1388-3690
ISSN (online)1573-0557
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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