How to format your references using the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D.: MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven. Science. 290, 1873b (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewinsohn, T.M., Cagnolo, L.: Ecology. Keystones in a tangled bank. Science. 335, 1449–1451 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Unal, E., Kinde, B., Amon, A.: Gametogenesis eliminates age-induced cellular damage and resets life span in yeast. Science. 332, 1554–1557 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
You, L.-R., Lin, F.-J., Lee, C.T., DeMayo, F.J., Tsai, M.-J., Tsai, S.Y.: Suppression of Notch signalling by the COUP-TFII transcription factor regulates vein identity. Nature. 435, 98–104 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison, D.C.: Perl Programming for Biologists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Wijesundara, M.B.J.: Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Saad, A.P.B.M., Syahrom, A., Harun, M.N., Kadir, M.R.A.: Conclusion. In: Syahrom, A., Harun, M.N., and Kadir, M.R.A. (eds.) Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters. pp. 55–55. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Why the Zebra Got Its Stripes,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Motor Vehicle Safety: NHTSA’s Ability to Detect and Recall Defective Replacement Crash Parts Is Limited. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford, A.: Internationalization Policy at the Genba: Exploring the Implementation of Social Science English-Taught Undergraduate Degree Programs in Three Japanese Universities, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K., Pilon, M.: Technology Firm From India Will Be New York Marathon Title Sponsor, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher-Order and Symbolic Computation
ISSN (print)1388-3690
ISSN (online)1573-0557
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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