How to format your references using the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benitez-Nelson, C.: Ocean chemistry. The missing link in oceanic phosphorus cycling? Science. 348, 759–760 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Retchless, A.C., Lawrence, J.G.: Temporal fragmentation of speciation in bacteria. Science. 317, 1093–1096 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chou, C.-H., Chuang, J.-K., Chen, F.-C.: High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics. Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moqrich, A., Hwang, S.W., Earley, T.J., Petrus, M.J., Murray, A.N., Spencer, K.S.R., Andahazy, M., Story, G.M., Patapoutian, A.: Impaired thermosensation in mice lacking TRPV3, a heat and camphor sensor in the skin. Science. 307, 1468–1472 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe, T.R.: Marriages & Families in the 21st Century. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Ho, J.D., Kroll, M.W. eds: TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology, Pathology, and Law. Springer US, Boston, MA (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues, T.B., Cerdán, S.: 1.4 The Cerebral Tricarboxylic Acid Cycles. In: Lajtha, A., Gibson, G.E., and Dienel, G.A. (eds.) Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Brain Energetics. Integration of Molecular and Cellular Processes. pp. 63–91. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Amazing Bridges Built For Animals,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: DOD Business Systems Modernization: Progress Continues to Be Made in Establishing Corporate Management Controls, but Further Steps Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emmerling-Baker, D.: A Qualitative Interpretive Phenomenological Study of K5 Teacher Perceptions of Classroom Empathy Instruction, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: A Yoga Manifesto, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher-Order and Symbolic Computation
ISSN (print)1388-3690
ISSN (online)1573-0557
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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