How to format your references using the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J.: ECOLOGY: California Algae May Be Feared European Species. Science. 289, 222b–3b (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanson, B., Voss, D.: Sunrise. Introduction. Hinode. Science. 318, 1571 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lemos, B., Araripe, L.O., Hartl, D.L.: Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences. Science. 319, 91–93 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Y., Christensen, S.K., Fankhauser, C., Cashman, J.R., Cohen, J.D., Weigel, D., Chory, J.: A role for flavin monooxygenase-like enzymes in auxin biosynthesis. Science. 291, 306–309 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tewari, A.: Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Liu, X. ed: Dao Companion to Daoist Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Cetinkaya, B.: Managing Outside Your Organisation. In: Cetinkaya, B., Ewer, G., Klaas-Wissing, T., Piotrowicz, W., and Tyssen, C. (eds.) Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Practical Ideas for Moving Towards Best Practice. pp. 117–151. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: If Atoms Are Mostly Empty Space, Why Do Objects Look And Feel Solid?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Preliminary Information on the Federal Government’s Response to Recent Natural Disasters. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn, D.T.: Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M.: Justices Face Wisconsin Case That Could Redraw Partisan Political Maps, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher-Order and Symbolic Computation
ISSN (print)1388-3690
ISSN (online)1573-0557
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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