How to format your references using the Journal of Discrete Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Discrete Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.G. Woods, Neuroscience. Crossing the midline, Science. 304 (2004) 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.R. Lynd, J. Woods, Perspective: A new hope for Africa, Nature. 474 (2011) S20-1.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Davies, A.E.S. Kemp, J. Pike, Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic, Nature. 460 (2009) 254–258.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Depuydt, S.E. Leonard, D. Vertommen, K. Denoncin, P. Morsomme, K. Wahni, J. Messens, K.S. Carroll, J.-F. Collet, A periplasmic reducing system protects single cysteine residues from oxidation, Science. 326 (2009) 1109–1111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Stahl, C. Stenson, Introduction to Topology and Geometry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
R.W. Hall, ed., Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Uchihashi, N. Kodera, T. Ando, Nanovisualization of Proteins in Action Using High-Speed AFM, in: A.F. Oberhauser (Ed.), Single-Molecule Studies of Proteins, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 119–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Discrete Algorithms.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How We’re Saving The Mountain Chicken Frog From One Of The World’s Worst Wildlife Diseases, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Experts Cited a Range of Requirements as Burdensome, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Karmacharya, Population Dynamics of Northern Cardinal and Carolina Wren in an Urban Forest Fragment: Safe Refuge or Ecological Trap?, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, More Teams Would Ruin a Great Thing, New York Times. (2010) B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Discrete Algorithms
AbbreviationJ. Discrete Algorithms (Amst.)
ISSN (print)1570-8667
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

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