How to format your references using the Journal of Discrete Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Discrete Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.J. Gorte, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Cooling down ceramic fuel cells, Science. 349 (2015) 1290.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Fratzl, F.G. Barth, Biomaterial systems for mechanosensing and actuation, Nature. 462 (2009) 442–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.H. Wilson, S.B. Shirey, R.W. Carlson, Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle, Nature. 423 (2003) 858–861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Ozima, K. Seki, N. Terada, Y.N. Miura, F.A. Podosek, H. Shinagawa, Terrestrial nitrogen and noble gases in lunar soils, Nature. 436 (2005) 655–659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.E. Perry, M.J. Haluska, Hiring Greatness, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
R. Valentini, F. Miglietta, eds., The Greenhouse Gas Balance of Italy: An Insight on Managed and Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Contucci, C. Giardinà, H. Nishimori, Spin Glass Identities and the Nishimori Line, in: A.B. de Monvel, A. Bovier (Eds.), Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2009: pp. 103–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Discrete Algorithms.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Searching Deep And Dark: Building A Google For The Less Visible Parts Of The Web, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Amtrak: Issues for Reauthorization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.T. Cashion, Exploring Dielectric Absorption: Data Collection System Development, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Dao, M.W. Walsh, Retiree Plans For Military Face Scrutiny, New York Times. (2011) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Discrete Algorithms
AbbreviationJ. Discrete Algorithms (Amst.)
ISSN (print)1570-8667
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles