How to format your references using the Journal of Discrete Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Discrete Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, US geneticists encouraged to play by the book, Nature. 404 (2000) 530.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Menon, B.D. Manning, Cell signalling: nutrient sensing lost in cancer, Nature. 498 (2013) 444–445.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.C. Antón, R. Potts, L.C. Aiello, Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective, Science. 345 (2014) 1236828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Matamala, M.A. Gonzàlez-Meler, J.D. Jastrow, R.J. Norby, W.H. Schlesinger, Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential, Science. 302 (2003) 1385–1387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.I. Good, Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
G. Levitin, ed., Computational Intelligence in Reliability Engineering: New Metaheuristics, Neural and Fuzzy Techniques in Reliability, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
V.K. LaBoskey, “Name It and Claim It”: The Methodology of Self-Study as Social Justice Teacher Education, in: L. Fitzgerald, M. Heston, D. Tidwell (Eds.), Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Discrete Algorithms.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Shrinking Of Antarctic Ice Shelves Is Accelerating, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Improvements Needed in the Department of Energy’s Efforts To Develop a Financial Reporting System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.C. Koval, Undergraduate Students in Paraprofessional Roles and their Use of Online Social Networks, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, O. Strand, Nestlé Goes High End, Buying Blue Bottle Coffee, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Discrete Algorithms
AbbreviationJ. Discrete Algorithms (Amst.)
ISSN (print)1570-8667
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles