How to format your references using the Journal of Discrete Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Discrete Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Smith, Willard Boyle (1924-2011), Nature. 474 (2011) 37.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.G. Haldane, R.M. May, Systemic risk in banking ecosystems, Nature. 469 (2011) 351–355.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Gavazzi, A. Bisio, T. Pozzo, Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.A. Abers, A. Ferris, M. Craig, H. Davies, A.L. Lerner-Lam, J.C. Mutter, B. Taylor, Mantle compensation of active metamorphic core complexes at Woodlark rift in Papua New Guinea, Nature. 418 (2002) 862–865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Dauphiné, Fractal Geography, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
P. Lukowicz, L. Thiele, G. Tröster, eds., Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Fiori, A. Lintas, S. Mesrobian, A.E.P. Villa, Effect of Emotion and Personality on Deviation from Purely Rational Decision-Making, in: T.V. Guy, M. Karny, D. Wolpert (Eds.), Decision Making and Imperfection, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 129–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Discrete Algorithms.

Blog post
S. Luntz, After Seven Months, Philae Has Woken Up!, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Implementation of CRADAs at NIST, Army, and DOE, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Beard, Evidence of Leadership Competencies in the Journal of Mary Easton Sibley, a Pioneering 19th Century Women’s College Founder, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Baggage, New and Old, Arrives at Citi Field, New York Times. (2011) D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Discrete Algorithms
AbbreviationJ. Discrete Algorithms (Amst.)
ISSN (print)1570-8667
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles