How to format your references using the arktos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for arktos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wine JJ (2014) Medicine. Letting go of mucus. Science 345:730–731
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen LJ, Bork P (2008) Biochemistry. Not comparable, but complementary. Science 322:56–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen Y, Emerson JJ, Martin TM (2005) Evolutionary genomics: codon volatility does not detect selection. Nature 433:E6-7; discussion E7-8
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leyva I, Navas A, Sendiña-Nadal I, et al (2013) Explosive transitions to synchronization in networks of phase oscillators. Sci Rep 3:1281

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young MR (2013) Financial Fraud Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schmicking D, Gallagher S (2010) Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Didier E (2016) Alain Desrosières’s spectacles: one lens realist, the other constructivist. In: Bruno I, Jany-Catrice F, Touchelay B (eds) The Social Sciences of Quantification: From Politics of Large Numbers to Target-Driven Policies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for arktos.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Two New Species Of Vampire Crabs Discovered. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian DE (2009) School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) After Negotiations With NBC, Billy Bush Is Officially Off ‘Today.’ New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlearktos
ISSN (print)2364-9453
ISSN (online)2364-9461

Other styles