How to format your references using the Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Take your partner by the hand. Nature, 435(7046), 1281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, J., & Lukin, M. D. (2014). Physics. Quantum systems under control. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 272–273.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mo, Y., Turner, K. T., & Szlufarska, I. (2009). Friction laws at the nanoscale. Nature, 457(7233), 1116–1119.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Limelette, P., Georges, A., Jérome, D., Wzietek, P., Metcalf, P., & Honig, J. M. (2003). Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros, T. F. (2009). Colloids in Agrochemicals. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Landry, E., & Rickles, D. (Eds.). (2012). Structural Realism: Structure, Object, and Causality (Vol. 77). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Disma, N., & Astuto, M. (2009). Central Venous Cannulation Techniques. In M. Astuto (Ed.), Basics (pp. 49–59). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 22). New Evidence From Prehistoric Human Teeth Reveals What The “Paleo Diet” Really Looked Like — And It’s Not What You Think. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Highway Trust Fund Expenditures on Purposes Other than Construction and Maintenance of Highways and Bridges during Fiscal Years 2004-2008 (No. GAO-09-729R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tetley, J. (2009). An investigation of self-authorship, hope, and meaning in life among second-year college students (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, June 1). Three Goals Early in Third Period Help Penguins Tighten Their Grip. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Life Course Criminol.
ISSN (print)2199-4641
ISSN (online)2199-465X

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