How to format your references using the Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C. (2006). Computer science. What do robots dream of? Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1093–1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohta, A., & Sitkovsky, M. (2001). Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in downregulation of inflammation and protection from tissue damage. Nature, 414(6866), 916–920.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, J., Timusk, T., & Gu, G. D. (2004). High-transition-temperature superconductivity in the absence of the magnetic-resonance mode. Nature, 427(6976), 714–717.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, Y.-J., Zhang, H., Liu, C.-L., Liu, B.-K., Ma, L.-C., & Wang, L.-C. (2014). Late Eocene to early Oligocene quantitative paleotemperature record: evidence from continental halite fluid inclusions. Scientific reports, 4, 5776.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shamsuddin, M. (2016). Physical Chemistry of Metallurgical Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Choi, L., Paek, Y., & Cho, S. (Eds.). (2007). Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 12th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 23-25, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4697). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
White, B. C., & Zirkelbach, S. (2014). Behavior and Husbandry of a Captive Group of Woolly Monkeys: A Case Study. In T. R. Defler & P. R. Stevenson (Eds.), The Woolly Monkey: Behavior, Ecology, Systematics, and Captive Research (pp. 61–73). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 18). Pope Francis Climate Advocate: Reframing The Debate. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Tank Recovery Vehicle: Status of Program Acquisition and Full-Scale Engineering Development (No. NSIAD-89-156). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski, R. M. (2012). Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schulman, M., & White, A. (2017, October 14). At Camp John Waters, a Band of ‘Filthy Freaks.’ New York Times, p. ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Life Course Criminol.
ISSN (print)2199-4641
ISSN (online)2199-465X

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