How to format your references using the Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer, A. R. (2004). Symmetry breaking and the evolution of development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5697), 828–833.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M. T. J., & Rubinstein, J. L. (2014). Structural biology. Beyond blob-ology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Albert, R., Jeong, H., & Barabasi, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature, 406(6794), 378–382.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Salger, T., Kling, S., Hecking, T., Geckeler, C., Morales-Molina, L., & Weitz, M. (2009). Directed transport of atoms in a Hamiltonian quantum ratchet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5957), 1241–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton, D. (2009). Principles of Flight Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Alconada Magliano, T. M., & Chulze, S. N. (Eds.). (2013). Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Simovici, D. A., & Djeraba, C. (2014). Linear Spaces. In C. Djeraba (Ed.), Mathematical Tools for Data Mining: Set Theory, Partial Orders, Combinatorics (pp. 197–279). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 17). How To Protect Planes And Passengers From Explosions On The Surface Of The Sun. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Decisionmaking Process for Its Route and Service Proposals (No. GAO-02-398). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeClerk, C. C. (2008). The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2016, May 15). Still Dreaming of Little Green Men. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Life Course Criminol.
ISSN (print)2199-4641
ISSN (online)2199-465X

Other styles