How to format your references using the Engineering in Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering in Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanchard, J.L., Climate change: A rewired food web. Nature 2015, 527, 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNeill, J.R., Winiwarter, V., Breaking the sod: humankind, history, and soil. Science 2004, 304, 1627–1629.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gallop, J.L., Butler, P.J.G., McMahon, H.T., Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission. Nature 2005, 438, 675–678.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen, J.G., Crooks, R.M., Seefeldt, L.C., Bren, K.L., et al., Beyond fossil fuel-driven nitrogen transformations. Science 2018, 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, H., Lee, E.K., Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 2016.
An edited book
Pertijs, M.A.P., PRECISION TEMPERATURE SENSORS IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Beigi, P.K.M., Maverakis, E., Diagnosis, in: Maverakis, E. (Ed.), Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician’s Guide, Springer International Publishing, Cham 2015, pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering in Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., Ecological Engineering: A Breath Of Life For Marine Ecosystems. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airport Improvement Program: Update of Allocation of Funds and Passenger Facility Charges, 1992-94, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domec, B.S., Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., The Tortured Voice of Russia’s Lost Generation. New York Times 2007, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering in Life Sciences
AbbreviationEng. Life Sci.
ISSN (print)1618-0240
ISSN (online)1618-2863
Environmental Engineering

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