How to format your references using the Engineering in Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering in Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gladysz, J.A., Chemistry. Fluorous to the core. Science 2006, 313, 1249–1250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, E., Chan, M.H.W., Probable observation of a supersolid helium phase. Nature 2004, 427, 225–227.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roseboom, W., Kawabe, T., Nishida, S., The cross-modal double flash illusion depends on featural similarity between cross-modal inducers. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3437.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schneider, T., Kruse, T., Wimmer, R., Wiedemann, I., et al., Plectasin, a fungal defensin, targets the bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II. Science 2010, 328, 1168–1172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bottomley, G.E., Channel Equalization for Wireless Communications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 2011.
An edited book
Erdmann, G., Kneuer, M. (Eds.), Regression of Democracy?: Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft Comparative Governance and Politics, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Atkins, L., Aupy, G., Cole, D., Pruhs, K., Speed Scaling to Manage Temperature, in: Marchetti-Spaccamela, A., Segal, M. (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Algorithms in (Computer) Systems: First International ICST Conference, TAPAS 2011, Rome, Italy, April 18-20, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2011, pp. 9–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering in Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R., Lizard Grows Six Tails At Once, Setting A New World Record. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Projects: Extent of Projects with Unobligated Balances of Greater Than 85 Percent as of August 16, 2002, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry, G.C., Students’ experiences with simulation education, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., At the Nation’s Table: Buffalo;Bottling the Secret Of the Wings. New York Times 1996, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering in Life Sciences
AbbreviationEng. Life Sci.
ISSN (print)1618-0240
ISSN (online)1618-2863
Environmental Engineering

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