How to format your references using the Engineering in Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering in Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trefethen, L.N., Obituary: Gene H. Golub (1932-2007). Nature 2007, 450, 962.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper, K.C., Sigman, M.S., Three-dimensional correlation of steric and electronic free energy relationships guides asymmetric propargylation. Science 2011, 333, 1875–1878.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagné, J.-P., Rouleau, M., Poirier, G.G., Structural biology. PARP-1 activation--bringing the pieces together. Science 2012, 336, 678–679.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dirks, P.H.G.M., Kibii, J.M., Kuhn, B.F., Steininger, C., et al., Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from southern Africa. Science 2010, 328, 205–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster, J., Shimonski, R., GIMP Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA 2010.
An edited book
Fogo, A.B., Fundamentals of Renal Pathology, 2nd ed. 2014, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarter, M., Bruno, J.P., Parikh, V., Martinez, V., et al., Forebrain dopaminergic-cholinergic interactions, attentional effort, psychostimulant addiction and schizophrenia, in: Levin, E.D. (Ed.), Neurotransmitter Interactions and Cognitive Function, Birkhäuser, Basel 2006, pp. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering in Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R., Court Rules That Kids Can Sue US Government Over Climate Change. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airline Deregulation: Trends in Airfares at Airports in Small and Medium-Sized Communities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin, H.-C., Depression screening in ambulatory care, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., Review: ‘Finding Babel’ Retraces a Celebrated Grandfather’s Footsteps. New York Times 2016, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering in Life Sciences
AbbreviationEng. Life Sci.
ISSN (print)1618-0240
ISSN (online)1618-2863
Environmental Engineering

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