How to format your references using the Journal of Dentistry: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dentistry: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Gravitz, Animal behaviour: Nested instincts, Nature. 521 (2015) S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.J. Ferraro, A. Kiss, Ecology. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity, Science. 298 (2002) 1718–1719.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.H. Blackburn, E.S. Epel, J. Lin, Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection, Science. 350 (2015) 1193–1198.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.M. Dhanasekaran, T.R. Barrette, D. Ghosh, R. Shah, S. Varambally, K. Kurachi, K.J. Pienta, M.A. Rubin, A.M. Chinnaiyan, Delineation of prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer, Nature. 412 (2001) 822–826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.S. Cyr, Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 Administration, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010.
An edited book
C. Parés, C. Vázquez, F. Coquel, eds., Advances in Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering: Lecture Notes of the XV “Jacques-Louis Lions” Spanish-French School, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Lodi-Smith, D.C. Park, Synapse: A Clinical Trial Examining the Impact of Actively Engaging the Aging Mind, in: P.E. Hartman-Stein, A. LaRue (Eds.), Enhancing Cognitive Fitness in Adults: A Guide to the Use and Development of Community-Based Programs, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dentistry: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, After 20 Years, Buckyballs Have Been Confirmed In Space, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Procurement Assessments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Lim, An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Gordon, Blessed Among Women, New York Times. (2012) BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dentistry: X
ISSN (print)2589-7004

Other styles