How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salo H. Astronomy. Twisted disks. Science. 2011;332(6030):672-673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moine H, Mandel JL. Biomedicine. Do G quartets orchestrate fragile X pathology? Science. 2001;294(5551):2487-2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shaw SL, Kamyar R, Ehrhardt DW. Sustained microtubule treadmilling in Arabidopsis cortical arrays. Science. 2003;300(5626):1715-1718.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Parthasarathy R, Livelybrooks D, Johnson D, et al. NSF program benefits schools in need. Science. 2011;332(6026):173-174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harper C. Analytic Methods in Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Abraham A, Grosan C, Pedrycz W, eds. Engineering Evolutionary Intelligent Systems. Vol 82. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Schrenk P, Hall-Findlay EJ, Fitzal F, et al. OPS and Breast Conserving Surgery (BSC). In: Fitzal F, Schrenk P, eds. Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Guide to Clinical Practice. Springer; 2010:45-132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews R. Ebola Nations Declare First Week With No New Cases. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s 1996 Financial Statements. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
van der Veen AM. Domestic Politics, International Inaction: The United States and Human Rights Treaties. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Captain America’s Mom: Some Shocking News. New York Times. May 26, 2016:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Sciences
ISSN (print)1991-7902

Other styles