How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feagin R. Journal club. A coastal ecologist sees the hidden effects of hurricanes. Nature. 2009;461(7262):319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark J, Hardy K. Mathematics. Chaos: useful at last? Science. 2003;301(5637):1192-1193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke MD, Berger EM, Schreiber SL. Generating diverse skeletons of small molecules combinatorially. Science. 2003;302(5645):613-618.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kwon YT, Kashina AS, Davydov IV, et al. An essential role of N-terminal arginylation in cardiovascular development. Science. 2002;297(5578):96-99.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilbao S. Wave and Scattering Methods for Numerical Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Jarm T, Kramar P, Zupanic A, eds. 11th Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biomedical Engineering and Computing 2007: MEDICON 2007, 26-30 June 2007, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Vol 16. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kishi Y, Hasegawa K, Kokudo N. Surgical Resection for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhosis: The Eastern Experience. In: Vauthey J-N, Brouquet A, eds. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Recent Results in Cancer Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:69-84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Sciences.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Scientists Have Figured Out Why Brown Dwarfs Are Such A Diverse Bunch. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Homeland Security: Oversight and Coordination of Research and Development Efforts Could Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tafoya A. Impact of HIV/AIDS stigma on seropositive Latinos along the United States-Mexico border. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mashal M. Head of ISIS Branch in Afghanistan Killed in April Raid. New York Times. May 7, 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Sciences
ISSN (print)1991-7902

Other styles