How to format your references using the Journal of Surgery and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgery and Medicine (JOSAM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gatenby RA. A change of strategy in the war on cancer. Nature. 2009;459:508–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kelemen PB, Hirth G. A periodic shear-heating mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes in the mantle. Nature. 2007;446:787–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dietz H, Douglas SM, Shih WM. Folding DNA into twisted and curved nanoscale shapes. Science. 2009;325:725–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cheng Y, Austin SC, Rocca B, Koller BH, Coffman TM, Grosser T, et al. Role of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular response to thromboxane A2. Science. 2002;296:539–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knowles R. 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bertau M, Offermanns H, Plass L, Schmidt F, Wernicke H-J, editors. Methanol: The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future: Asinger’s Vision Today. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yoshiyama K, Sakurai A. Manifold-Regularized Minimax Probability Machine. In: Schwenker F, Trentin E, editors. Partially Supervised Learning: First IAPR TC3 Workshop, PSL 2011, Ulm, Germany, September 15-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgery and Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. This Summer’s Arctic Sea Ice Extent Is The Second Lowest On Record. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Internal Control and Financial Management Systems: Major Reform Efforts Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Norton JC. Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Paulson M. Tight Tony Battles and Sure Bets. New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgery and Medicine
ISSN (online)2602-2079

Other styles