How to format your references using the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foster PL. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 2011;332:1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meibom A, Frei R. Evidence for an ancient osmium isotopic reservoir in Earth. Science 2002;296:516–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Urban FE, Cole JE, Overpeck JT. Influence of mean climate change on climate variability from a 155-year tropical Pacific coral record. Nature 2000;407:989–93.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Uemura S, Dorywalska M, Lee T-H, Kim HD, Puglisi JD, Chu S. Peptide bond formation destabilizes Shine-Dalgarno interaction on the ribosome. Nature 2007;446:454–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Green SD. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
de Voogt P, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 236. vol. 236. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez GE, Melin P, Mendoza OD, Castillo O. Face Recognition with a Sobel Edge Detector and the Choquet Integral as Integration Method in a Modular Neural Networks. In: Melin P, Castillo O, Kacprzyk J, editors. Design of Intelligent Systems Based on Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Nature-Inspired Optimization, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cystic Fibrosis.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Lucky Photographer Captures Epic Battle Between Sea Snake And Stonefish. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock M. Memoir as contemporary myth. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. A Smorgasbord of Empanadas. New York Times 2007:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cystic Fibrosis
AbbreviationJ. Cyst. Fibros.
ISSN (print)1569-1993
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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