How to format your references using the Australian Orthoptic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Orthoptic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M. Postdoc redefined. Nature. 2007 Apr 26;446(7139):1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mullen GM, Mullins CB. Chemistry. Water’s place in Au catalysis. Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1564–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel T, Deng C-X, Mostoslavsky R. Recent progress in the biology and physiology of sirtuins. Nature. 2009 Jul 30;460(7255):587–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Self S, Blake S, Sharma K, Widdowson M, Sephton S. Sulfur and chlorine in late Cretaceous Deccan magmas and eruptive gas release. Science. 2008 Mar 21;319(5870):1654–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Broome J. Weighing Goods. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Maffucci A, Maksimenko SA, editors. Fundamental and Applied Nano-Electromagnetics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. VIII, 290 p. 165 illus., 111 illus. in color. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics).
A chapter in an edited book
Arslan-Ayaydin Ö, Thewissen J. The Impact of Environmental Strengths and Concerns on the Accounting Performance of Firms in the Energy Sector. In: Dorsman A, Westerman W, Simpson JL, editors. Energy Technology and Valuation Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 83–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Orthoptic Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Severe Droughts Are Messing With A Forest’s Ability To Help With Climate Change [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation: Comparison of Airline “Customer Service Commitment” With Contracts of Carriage and Federal Law. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: RCED-99-281R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores MY. Delinquency prevention program for Latino youth: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C. Pursuing Love and an Even More Elusive Goal. New York Times. 2015 Dec 15;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Orthoptic Journal
ISSN (print)0814-0936

Other styles