How to format your references using the Australian Orthoptic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Orthoptic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N. Glycobiology: A spoonful of sugar. Nature. 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):617–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neronov A, Vovk I. Evidence for strong extragalactic magnetic fields from Fermi observations of TeV blazars. Science. 2010 Apr 2;328(5974):73–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy VR, van Westrenen W, Fei Y. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature. 2003 May 8;423(6936):163–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen Q, Wu J, Ou X, Huang B, Almutlaq J, Zhumekenov AA, et al. All-inorganic perovskite nanocrystal scintillators. Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7721):88–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biech E. 101 More Ways to Make Training Active. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Servien E, editors. Acute Muscle Injuries. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XVIII, 138 p. 48 illus., 31 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Deplazes A, Ganguli-Mitra A, Biller-Andorno N. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology: Outlining the Agenda. In: Schmidt M, Kelle A, Ganguli-Mitra A, Vriend H, editors. Synthetic Biology: The technoscience and its societal consequences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Orthoptic Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. 99% Of All Seabird Species Will Likely Be Eating Plastic By 2050 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loans: The Department of Education’s Implementation of Direct Lending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jun. Report No.: T-HRD-93-26.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayres R. Optimization of a Novel Oxy-Michael Ugi-Smiles Reaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A, Baker AL. In the South Bronx, Lives Derailed by Guns. New York Times. 2017 Apr 6;A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Orthoptic Journal
ISSN (print)0814-0936

Other styles