How to format your references using the Australian Orthoptic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Orthoptic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kampinga HH. Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle. Nature. 2015 Aug 13;524(7564):169–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hom EFY, Murray AW. Plant-fungal ecology. Niche engineering demonstrates a latent capacity for fungal-algal mutualism. Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):94–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skipper M, Weiss U, Gray N. Plasticity. Nature. 2010 Jun 10;465(7299):703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hagleitner C, Hierlemann A, Lange D, Kummer A, Kerness N, Brand O, et al. Smart single-chip gas sensor microsystem. Nature. 2001 Nov 15;414(6861):293–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tobias J, Hochhauser D. Cancer and its Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Peters S, Besse B, editors. New Therapeutic Strategies in Lung Cancers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XII, 255 p. 23 illus., 14 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo X, Lin HH, Yatake K, Aoki T. An UPPAAL Framework for Model Checking Automotive Systems with FlexRay Protocol. In: Artho C, Ölveczky PC, editors. Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems: Second International Workshop, FTSCS 2013, Queenstown, New Zealand, October 29--30, 2013 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 36–53. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Orthoptic Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. It’s Time To Wake Up To The Devastating Impact Flying Has On The Environment. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transit Labor Arrangements: Most Transit Agencies Report Impacts Are Minimal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Nov. Report No.: GAO-02-78.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenfeld DB. Policy Making and the U.S. Response to Global HIV/AIDS [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grisham J. John Grisham’s Suggestions for Writing Popular Fiction. New York Times. 2017 May 31;BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Orthoptic Journal
ISSN (print)0814-0936

Other styles