How to format your references using the Journal of Current Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Current Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. Axeing of website article sparks row at Max Planck. Nature. 2003;422(6931):460.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adlam B, Nowak MA. Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seymour RS, White CR, Gibernau M. Environmental biology: heat reward for insect pollinators. Nature. 2003;426(6964):243-244.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Colmone A, Amorim M, Pontier AL, Wang S, Jablonski E, Sipkins DA. Leukemic cells create bone marrow niches that disrupt the behavior of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Science. 2008;322(5909):1861-1865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mamishev A, Williams S. Technical Writing for Teams. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Balks MR. Celebrating Soil: Discovering Soils and Landscapes. (Zabowski D, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Jespers E, Okniński J. General Noetherian semigroup algebras. In: Okniński J, ed. Noetherian Semigroup Algebras. Algebra and Applications. Springer Netherlands; 2007:117-147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Current Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Immense Volcanic Eruptions AND An Asteroid Impact Were Both Responsible For Killing Off The Dinosaurs. IFLScience. Published July 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Budget: Carryover Balances in Selected Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin Y. A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Haberman M, Apuzzo M. Wary of Mueller, Trump’s Team Is Investigating His Investigators. New York Times. July 21, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Current Ophthalmology
AbbreviationJ. Curr. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)2452-2325

Other styles