How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier, E. B. (2015). Policy: Hurricane Katrina’s lessons for the world. Nature 524, 285–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonnenburg, E. D., and Sonnenburg, J. L. (2015). Nutrition: A personal forecast. Nature 528, 484–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kamat, S. S., Williams, H. J., and Raushel, F. M. (2011). Intermediates in the transformation of phosphonates to phosphate by bacteria. Nature 480, 570–573.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lin, F., Markus, I. M., Doeff, M. M., and Xin, H. L. (2014). Chemical and structural stability of lithium-ion battery electrode materials under electron beam. Sci. Rep. 4, 5694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger, M., and Binder, A. (2013). A Workout in Computational Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yang, F., and Li, J. C. M. eds. (2008). Micro and Nano Mechanical Testing of Materials and Devices. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Grassom, B. (2016). “Dream and Semblance: The Play of Art and Life,” in The Cosmos and the Creative Imagination, eds. A.-T. Tymieniecka and P. Trutty-Coohill (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 59–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Seals With Sensors on Their Heads Record Ocean Data in Harsh, Icy Waters. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce to Achieve Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, S. L. (2008). Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berkman, S. (2017). A Beauty of a Pitchers’ Duel? Try an Ugly Slugfest. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbier, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Barbier, 2015; Sonnenburg and Sonnenburg, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sonnenburg and Sonnenburg, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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