How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ensslin, T. A. (2006). Astronomy. Radio traces of cosmic shock waves. Science 314, 772–773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefer, D. K., and Larsen, M. C. (2007). Geology. Assessing landslide hazards. Science 316, 1136–1138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Udem, T., Holzwarth, R., and Hänsch, T. W. (2002). Optical frequency metrology. Nature 416, 233–237.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith, G. C. S., Stenhouse, E. J., Crossley, J. A., Aitken, D. A., Cameron, A. D., and Connor, J. M. (2002). Early-pregnancy origins of low birth weight. Nature 417, 916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. M. E., Arashi, M., and Tabatabaey, S. M. M. (2014). Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Müller-Hannemann, M., and Schirra, S. eds. (2010). Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap between Algorithm Theory and Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Altalag, A., Road, J., and Wilcox, P. (2009). “Bronchial Challenge Testing,” in Pulmonary Function Tests in Clinical Practice, eds. J. Road and A. Altalag (London: Springer), 71–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Asteroid Mining Just Moved A Step Closer To Being A Reality. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Aviation Safety: Problems Persist in FAA’s Inspection Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nolan, C. (2017). Safety Mindfulness: The Incorporation of Low-Dose Mindfulness as a Leading Edge Safety Intervention.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017). A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ensslin, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ensslin, 2006; Keefer and Larsen, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keefer and Larsen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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