How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ley, R. E. (2015). The gene-microbe link. Nature 518, S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keen, D. A., and Goodwin, A. L. (2015). The crystallography of correlated disorder. Nature 521, 303–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo, H. I., Barsoum, M. W., and El-Raghy, T. (2000). Ti3SiC2 has negligible thermopower. Nature 407, 581–582.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smet, J. H., Deutschmann, R. A., Ertl, F., Wegscheider, W., Abstreiter, G., and von Klitzing, K. (2002). Gate-voltage control of spin interactions between electrons and nuclei in a semiconductor. Nature 415, 281–286.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Péra, M.-C., Hissel, D., Gualous, H., and Turpin, C. (2013). Electrochemical Components. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dolev, S. ed. (2006). Distributed Computing: 20th International Symposium, DISC 2006, Stockholm, Sweden, September 18-20, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tejchman, J., and Bobiński, J. (2013). “Discontinuous Approach to Concrete,” in Continuous and Discontinuous Modelling of Fracture in Concrete Using FEM Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering., ed. J. Bobiński (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 95–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). This Sarlacc-Like Creature Existed 520 Million Years Before Star Wars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Space Operations: NASA’s Communications Support for Earth Orbiting Spacecraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krisher, J. (2017). Cell-Matrix Interaction: Activation of the MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway in Salivary Gland Cells.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). Looking For Love. New York Times, 141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ley, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Keen and Goodwin, 2015; Ley, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keen and Goodwin, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Smet et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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