How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2003). Look, no hands. Nature 424, 583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohrbach, A., and Schmidt, M. W. (2011). Redox freezing and melting in the Earth’s deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling. Nature 472, 209–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allison, K. R., Brynildsen, M. P., and Collins, J. J. (2011). Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides. Nature 473, 216–220.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hudait, M. K., Clavel, M., Goley, P., Jain, N., and Zhu, Y. (2014). Heterogeneous integration of epitaxial Ge on Si using AlAs/GaAs buffer architecture: suitability for low-power fin field-effect transistors. Sci. Rep. 4, 6964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, F.-C., Yu, B., Wei, J.-J., and Kawaguchi, Y. (2011). Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Kazimierski, Z. (2016). Externally Heated Valve Engine: A New Approach to Piston Engines. 1st ed. 2016. , ed. J. Wojewoda Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Battaglini, L., Burrascano, P., Canova, A., Ficili, F., Ricci, M., Rossi, D., et al. (2011). “Non-destructive Control of Metallic Plate with Magnetic Techniques,” in New Developments and Applications in Sensing Technology Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering., eds. S. C. Mukhopadhyay, A. Lay-Ekuakille, and A. Fuchs (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 107–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015). The Science of Meditation. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Comments on Deletion of FTS 2000 Provision from 1996 Appropriation Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, R. S. (2015). A phenomenological hermeneutic study of radiology.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2015). America’s Tea Culture Blossoms. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2003; Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hudait et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles