How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rando, T. A. (2006). Stem cells, ageing and the quest for immortality. Nature 441, 1080–1086.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietrich, W. E., and Perron, J. T. (2006). The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature 439, 411–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aharonian, F. A., Bogovalov, S. V., and Khangulyan, D. (2012). Abrupt acceleration of a “cold” ultrarelativistic wind from the Crab pulsar. Nature 482, 507–509.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wolpoff, M. H., Hawks, J., Frayer, D. W., and Hunley, K. (2001). Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory. Science 291, 293–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, J. (2009). Becoming a Category of One. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rashid, A., and Aksit, M. eds. (2007). Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Soeda, T., Yanagidate, Y., and Yokoyama, T. (2009). “Embedded Control Software Design with Aspect Patterns,” in Advances in Software Engineering: International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications, ASEA 2009 Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. D. Ślęzak, T.-H. Kim, A. Kiumi, T. Jiang, J. Verner, and S. Abrahão (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 34–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). 6,000-Year-Old Amulet Represents A Tech That Helped Take Humanity Into Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel, C. C. (2008). Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). A Script, or Woods’s Road to Recovery? New York Times, B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rando, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dietrich and Perron, 2006; Rando, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dietrich and Perron, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolpoff et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cancer Imaging and Diagnosis
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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