How to format your references using the Journal of Constructional Steel Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Constructional Steel Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.A. Nowak, Prisoners of the dilemma, Nature. 427 (2004) 491.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Lu, C. Brelsford, Network structure and community evolution on Twitter: human behavior change in response to the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6773.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Maamar, A. Raj, D. Dubnau, Noise in gene expression determines cell fate in Bacillus subtilis, Science. 317 (2007) 526–529.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Zhou, X. Lin, S. Wang, H. Wang, W. Li, Z. Tao, A. Xu, Environmental surveillance for human astrovirus in Shandong Province, China in 2013, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.E. McGrath, Darwinism and the Divine, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A.M. Lozano, P.L. Gildenberg, R.R. Tasker, eds., Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Tian, H. Wang, W. Jin, Y. Ni, Y. Yu, A Pattern-Based Approach for Efficient Query Processing over RDF Data, in: A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, R. Wagner (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems V, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 70–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Constructional Steel Research.

Blog post
J. Davis, High Stomach Acidity Might Help Animals Protect Against Gut Infection, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mobile Devices: Federal Agencies’ Steps to Improve Mobile Access to Government Information and Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Nagarajan, Migration, remittances, and household health: Evidence from South Africa, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Virtual Target Previews Fall, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Constructional Steel Research
AbbreviationJ. Constr. Steel Res.
ISSN (print)0143-974X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
Metals and Alloys

Other styles