How to format your references using the Journal of Constructional Steel Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Constructional Steel Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Schlosshauer, Lifting the fog from the north, Nature. 453 (2008) 39.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.A. Barres, S.J. Smith, Neurobiology. Cholesterol--making or breaking the synapse, Science. 294 (2001) 1296–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Zhu, G.B. Golding, A.M. Dean, The selective cause of an ancient adaptation, Science. 307 (2005) 1279–1282.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Mizushima, B. Levine, A.M. Cuervo, D.J. Klionsky, Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion, Nature. 451 (2008) 1069–1075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.L. Klepinger, Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
E. Croci, ed., The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements: Design, Implementation and Evaluation Issues, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Cui, Y. Teng, J. Wang, M. Song, Y. Xing, H. Yuan, Alamouti Coding Based Relay Selection Strategies for Wireless Multi-hop Network, in: Q. Zu, M. Vargas-Vera, B. Hu (Eds.), Pervasive Computing and the Networked World: Joint International Conference, ICPCA/SWS 2013, Vina Del Mar, Chile, December 5-7, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Constructional Steel Research.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Will AI Ever Understand Human Emotions?, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Railroad Safety: Accidents in Pennsylvania and Related Federal Enforcement Actions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Stachowiak, How executive coaches use the results of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop their coachees, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Seltzer, Doctor in the House, New York Times. (2017) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Constructional Steel Research
AbbreviationJ. Constr. Steel Res.
ISSN (print)0143-974X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
Metals and Alloys

Other styles