How to format your references using the Journal of Constructional Steel Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Constructional Steel Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Tippmann, Programming tools: Adventures with R, Nature. 517 (2015) 109–110.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.W. Schwartz, D. Porte Jr, Diabetes, obesity, and the brain, Science. 307 (2005) 375–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.E. Ice, J.D. Budai, J.W.L. Pang, The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science, Science. 334 (2011) 1234–1239.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Barsbold, P.J. Currie, N.P. Myhrvold, H. Osmolska, K. Tsogtbaatar, M. Watabe, A pygostyle from a non-avian theropod, Nature. 403 (2000) 155–156.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Fanchi, Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
L.A. Zadeh, A.M. Abbasov, R.R. Yager, S.N. Shahbazova, M.Z. Reformat, eds., Recent Developments and New Directions in Soft Computing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Z.N. Singh, M.L. Gulley, Myelodysplasia and Myeloid Proliferations, in: A.C. Mackinnon Jr (Ed.), Pediatric Neoplasia: Advances in Molecular Pathology and Translational Medicine, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2012: pp. 75–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Constructional Steel Research.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, New Horizons Is Going To Visit Another Object After Pluto, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Budget: Potential Reductions to Budget Requests for Selected ADP Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.P. Filomena, Technology portfolio and capacity expansion under uncertainty, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Superintendent Takes On Ailing Roosevelt, New York Times. (2007) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Constructional Steel Research
AbbreviationJ. Constr. Steel Res.
ISSN (print)0143-974X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
Metals and Alloys

Other styles