How to format your references using the Journal of Constructional Steel Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Constructional Steel Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Yang, China must continue the momentum of green law, Nature. 509 (2014) 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.M. Read, T. Bacic, Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose, Science. 295 (2002) 59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.M. Davidson, R. Frothingham, R. Cook-Deegan, Science and security. Practical experiences in dual-use review, Science. 316 (2007) 1432–1433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A. Dunlop, L.I. Anderson, H. Kerp, H. Hass, Palaeontology: preserved organs of Devonian harvestmen, Nature. 425 (2003) 916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.P. Pohanish, HazMat Data, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
G.K. Scadding, P.D. Bull, J.M. Graham, eds., Pediatric ENT, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S.C. Hirtle, S. Timpf, T. Tenbrink, The Effect of Activity on Relevance and Granularity for Navigation, in: M. Egenhofer, N. Giudice, R. Moratz, M. Worboys (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory: 10th International Conference, COSIT 2011, Belfast, ME, USA, September 12-16, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Constructional Steel Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Organisms That Make Us Who We Are, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Development of Competition in Local Telephone Markets, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Morales, Understanding How Perceptions of School Leadership and School Community Relationships Affected Veteran Teachers’ Decisions to Remain Working in Urban Elementary Schools, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Missile Strike Signals a New Reality in Syria for Friends and Foes Alike, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Constructional Steel Research
AbbreviationJ. Constr. Steel Res.
ISSN (print)0143-974X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
Metals and Alloys

Other styles