How to format your references using the Experimental Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgan JV (2008) Comment on “Determining chondritic impactor size from the marine osmium isotope record.” Science 321:1158; author reply 1158
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman MP, Watkins NW (2002) Auroral and space physics. The heavens in a pile of sand. Science 298:979–980
A journal article with 3 authors
Scatena LF, Brown MG, Richmond GL (2001) Water at hydrophobic surfaces: weak hydrogen bonding and strong orientation effects. Science 292:908–912
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hahn MW, Mezey JG, Begun DJ, et al (2005) Evolutionary genomics: codon bias and selection on single genomes. Nature 433:E5-6; discussion E7-8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2013) Guidelines for Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gundelfinger ED, Seidenbecher CI, Schraven B (2006) Cell Communication in Nervous and Immune System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Battin-Leclerc F, Curran H, Faravelli T, Glaude PA (2013) Specificities Related to Detailed Kinetic Models for the Combustion of Oxygenated Fuels Components. In: Battin-Leclerc F, Simmie JM, Blurock E (eds) Cleaner Combustion: Developing Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models. Springer, London, pp 93–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Mechanics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Collection Of Artwork Commissioned By Gates Foundation Reminds Us Of The Importance Of Vaccination. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Contracts Awarded by the Social and Rehabilitation Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on a Noncompetitive Basis. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taboada-Peña R (2017) A Self-Empowering Holistic Art-Based Model Designed to Promote Emotional Well-Being, Coping Skills, and Self-Esteem in Youth. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C32

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Mechanics
AbbreviationExp. Mech.
ISSN (print)0014-4851
ISSN (online)1741-2765
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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