How to format your references using the Experimental Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guessoum N (2013) Astrophysics: Time for an Arab astronomy renaissance. Nature 498:161–164
A journal article with 2 authors
Taleff EM, Pedrazas NA (2013) Materials science. A new route for growing large grains in metals. Science 341:1461–1462
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruby E, Henderson B, McFall-Ngai M (2004) Microbiology. We get by with a little help from our (little) friends. Science 303:1305–1307
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jørgensen R, Merrill AR, Yates SP, et al (2005) Exotoxin A-eEF2 complex structure indicates ADP ribosylation by ribosome mimicry. Nature 436:979–984

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna MI, Ionin BI, Tebby JC (2013) Alkynes in Cycloadditions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ishihara M, Hoshino E, Fujita Y (2016) Self-determinable Development of Small Islands. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Menon HP, Narayanankutty KA (2016) MRI/CT IMAGE FUSION USING GABOR TEXTURE FEATURES. In: Corchado Rodriguez JM, Mitra S, Thampi SM, El-Alfy E-S (eds) Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Mechanics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) This Math Question Baffled The Internet - Can You Solve It? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Electronic Government: Federal Agencies Have Made Progress Implementing the E-Government Act of 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zatolokin A (2015) Stylistic approaches for oboists in the operatic works of J. Hasse. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2015) Putin Calls Elton John, This Time for Real. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Mechanics
AbbreviationExp. Mech.
ISSN (print)0014-4851
ISSN (online)1741-2765
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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