How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zheng, J.Q.: Turning of nerve growth cones induced by localized increases in intracellular calcium ions. Nature. 403, 89–93 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, A.I., Foote, M.: Epicontinental seas versus open-ocean settings: the kinetics of mass extinction and origination. Science. 326, 1106–1109 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, M., Yu, X., Ahlberg, P.E.: A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature. 410, 81–84 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jardine, A.P., Dworski, S., Fouquet, P., Alexandrowicz, G., Riley, D.J., Lee, G.Y.H., Ellis, J., Allison, W.: Ultrahigh-resolution spin-echo measurement of surface potential energy landscapes. Science. 304, 1790–1793 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ralph, D., Graham, P.: MMS: Technologies, Usage and Business Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2004)
An edited book
Moemeka, E.: Real World Windows 8 App Development with JavaScript: Create Great Windows Store Apps. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Chau, O., Goeleven, D., Oujja, R.: Variational Inequality Models Arising in the Study of Viscoelastic Materials. In: Rassias, T.M. and Pardalos, P.M. (eds.) Mathematics Without Boundaries: Surveys in Pure Mathematics. pp. 93–126. Springer, New York, NY (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques.

Blog post
Hale, T.: This Web Tool Uses Your Social Media Activity To Predict Your Past, Present, And Future


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Land Management Systems: Actions Needed in Completing the Automated Land and Mineral Record System Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole Jackson, M.: National school reform: the benefits of civility and ethics instruction, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J.F.: Death Is Inevitable. Financial Turmoil Afterward Isn’t, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques
ISSN (print)2274-2042
ISSN (online)2263-8733
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles