How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Ommen, T.: Palaeoclimate: Northern push for the bipolar see-saw. Nature. 520, 630–631 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pflamm-Altenburg, J., Kroupa, P.: Clustered star formation as a natural explanation for the Halpha cut-off in disk galaxies. Nature. 455, 641–643 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, D., King, G., Tapponnier, P.: Slip partitioning by elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip at depth. Science. 300, 1121–1123 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shepherd, A., Wingham, D., Payne, T., Skvarca, P.: Larsen ice shelf has progressively thinned. Science. 302, 856–859 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C.L., Narayanamurthy, V., Simha, K.R.Y.: Applied Impact Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Fahrenberg, U., Tripakis, S. eds: Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: 9th International Conference, FORMATS 2011, Aalborg, Denmark, September 21-23, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Rizzo, A.M., Berselli, P., Zava, S., Montorfano, G., Negroni, M., Corsetto, P., Berra, B.: Endogenous Antioxidants and Radical Scavengers. In: Giardi, M.T., Rea, G., and Berra, B. (eds.) Bio-Farms for Nutraceuticals: Functional Food and Safety Control by Biosensors. pp. 52–67. Springer US, Boston, MA (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: “Toothless” 400 Million-Year-Old Fish Fossil Hints At Later Origin Of Teeth,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Bridge Condition Assessment: Inaccurate Data May Cause Inequities in the Apportionment of Federal-Aid Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, X.: Exfoliation Corrosion Kinetics of High Strength Aluminum Alloys, (2006)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O.: The Best-Seller List 55 Years Ago, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques
ISSN (print)2274-2042
ISSN (online)2263-8733
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles