How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási, A.-L.: Sociology. Network theory--the emergence of the creative enterprise. Science. 308, 639–641 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, X.H., Matsumoto, H.: Rapid magnetic reconnection in the Earth’s magnetosphere mediated by whistler waves. Nature. 410, 557–560 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhavsar, A.P., Guttman, J.A., Finlay, B.B.: Manipulation of host-cell pathways by bacterial pathogens. Nature. 449, 827–834 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roy Chowdhury, R., Vallania, F., Yang, Q., Lopez Angel, C.J., Darboe, F., Penn-Nicholson, A., Rozot, V., Nemes, E., Malherbe, S.T., Ronacher, K., Walzl, G., Hanekom, W., Davis, M.M., Winter, J., Chen, X., Scriba, T.J., Khatri, P., Chien, Y.-H.: A multi-cohort study of the immune factors associated with M. tuberculosis infection outcomes. Nature. 560, 644–648 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, R.K.: Visual Data Mining. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2012)
An edited book
Das, V.V., Chaba, Y. eds: Mobile Communication and Power Engineering: Second International Joint Conference, AIM/CCPE 2012, Bangalore, India, April 27-28, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Pincock, C.: Mathematical Structural Realism. In: Bokulich, A. and Bokulich, P. (eds.) Scientific Structuralism. pp. 67–79. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Why The Eastern Coyote Should Be A Separate Species: The “Coywolf’


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Passengers with Disabilities: Air Carriers’ Disability-Training Programs and the Department of Transportation’s Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2017)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad, H.: Removing a Thorn with a Thorn: Evaluating India’s Use of Militias in Counterinsurgency, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: LIPA Kills Wind Farm Off Jones Beach, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques
ISSN (print)2274-2042
ISSN (online)2263-8733
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles