How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques (J Comput Virol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D.: Ontario joins the genomics goldrush. Nature. 404, 692 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Barouch, D.H., Deeks, S.G.: Immunologic strategies for HIV-1 remission and eradication. Science. 345, 169–174 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Umari, P., Mosconi, E., De Angelis, F.: Relativistic GW calculations on CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3SnI3 perovskites for solar cell applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 4467 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bose, S., Singh, R., Hanewich-Hollatz, M., Shen, C., Lee, C.-H., Dorfman, D.M., Karp, J.M., Karnik, R.: Affinity flow fractionation of cells via transient interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns. Sci. Rep. 3, 2329 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb, M.J.: Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Huckleberry, A., Penkov, I., Zuckerman, G. eds: Lie Groups: Structure, Actions, and Representations: In Honor of Joseph A. Wolf on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Baglioni, P., Chelazzi, D., Giorgi, R.: Deacidification of Paper, Canvas and Wood. In: Chelazzi, D. and Giorgi, R. (eds.) Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A compendium of materials and techniques. pp. 117–144. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Researchers Build A Wire Three Atoms Wide,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Customs and INS: Information on Inspection, Infrastructure, Traffic Flow, and Security Matters at the Detroit Port of Entry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner, I.: Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: The Kennedy Factor On the Roberts Court, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques
ISSN (print)2274-2042
ISSN (online)2263-8733
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles