How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coles, P.: The state of the Universe. Nature. 433, 248–256 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausfeld, N.J., Hirth, F.: Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia. Science. 340, 157–161 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinothkumar, K.R., Zhu, J., Hirst, J.: Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I. Nature. 515, 80–84 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aldaz, H., Rice, L.M., Stearns, T., Agard, D.A.: Insights into microtubule nucleation from the crystal structure of human gamma-tubulin. Nature. 435, 523–527 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide, P.: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Norman, R.A.: Atlas of Geriatric Dermatology. Springer, London (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Shult, E., Surowski, D.: Normal Structure of Groups. In: Surowski, D. (ed.) Algebra: A Teaching and Source Book. pp. 137–161. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: We Found Only One-Third Of Published Psychology Research Is Reliable – Now What?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Preliminary Observations on Major Acquisition Projects and Management Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguilar, M.: Latina single mothers: Perspectives on parenting, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Left Out of a Tiebreaker Game, Mexico Protests, but to No Avail, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques
ISSN (print)2274-2042
ISSN (online)2263-8733
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles