How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Languages citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Languages. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Beutler, Inferences, questions and possibilities in Toll-like receptor signalling, Nature. 430 (2004) 257–263.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Shinar, M. Feinberg, Structural sources of robustness in biochemical reaction networks, Science. 327 (2010) 1389–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.J. Weeks, B. Currie, A. Bakun, Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic, Nature. 415 (2002) 493–494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Abdul Ajees, K. Gunasekaran, J.E. Volanakis, S.V.L. Narayana, G.J. Kotwal, H.M.K. Murthy, The structure of complement C3b provides insights into complement activation and regulation, Nature. 444 (2006) 221–225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Joseph, Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A. Fichera, M.K. Krane, eds., Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Vadim, G. Ying, J. Geoff, P. Geoff, Physically Realistic Self-assembly Simulation System, in: G. Crina, R. Vitorino (Eds.), Stigmergic Optimization, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 117–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Languages.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Hidden In Plain Sight: The Milky Way’s New Companions, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Opportunities To Improve the Redistribution of the Federal Government’s Excess Automatic Data Processing Equipment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Liu, Methods for generating addressable focus cues in stereoscopic displays, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Many Yearn to Put Some Distance Between Themselves and Their Memories, New York Times. (2002) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Languages
ISSN (print)2590-1184

Other styles