How to format your references using the Journal of Computer Languages citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computer Languages. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Fact or fiction?, Nature. 425 (2003) 219.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Sui, K.H. Downing, Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealed by cryo-electron tomography, Nature. 442 (2006) 475–478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q. Zhou, H.W. Tao, M.-M. Poo, Reversal and stabilization of synaptic modifications in a developing visual system, Science. 300 (2003) 1953–1957.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Viswanath, G.M. Story, A.M. Peier, M.J. Petrus, V.M. Lee, S.W. Hwang, A. Patapoutian, T. Jegla, Opposite thermosensor in fruitfly and mouse, Nature. 423 (2003) 822–823.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Eggleston, The ICE Conditions of Contract: Seventh Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
P. Kacsuk, T. Fahringer, Z. Németh, eds., Distributed and Parallel Systems: From Cluster to Grid Computing, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-É. Pin, An Explicit Formula for the Intersection of Two Polynomials of Regular Languages, in: M.-P. Béal, O. Carton (Eds.), Developments in Language Theory: 17th International Conference, DLT 2013, Marne-La-Vallée, France, June 18-21, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 31–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computer Languages.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Is KPC And Should I Be Worried About These Superbugs?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Air Traffic Controller Staffing and Related Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Luna, Preventing obesity among foster youth through nutrition and outdoor activities: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Jump in Prostitution Arrests in Super Bowl Week, New York Times. (2014) B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computer Languages
ISSN (print)2590-1184

Other styles