How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Physics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Physics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.M. Smeeding, Economics. Adjusting to the fertility bust, Science. 346 (2014) 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Süsstrunk, S.D. Huber, PHYSICS. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator, Science. 349 (2015) 47–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Gonçalves, D. Balcan, A. Vespignani, Human mobility and the worldwide impact of intentional localized highly pathogenic virus release, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 810.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Michel, J.M. Reichhart, J.A. Hoffmann, J. Royet, Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein, Nature. 414 (2001) 756–759.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Declerck, Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012.
An edited book
S. Childress, A. Hosoi, W.W. Schultz, J. Wang, eds., Natural Locomotion in Fluids and on Surfaces: Swimming, Flying, and Sliding, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Hankinson-Nelson, Feminist and Non-feminist Philosophy of Biology: Parallels, Differences, and Prospects for Future Engagements, in: M.C. Amoretti, N. Vassallo (Eds.), Meta-Philosophical Reflection on Feminist Philosophies of Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 55–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Physics: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, First Outbreak Of Poliovirus In Africa For A Year, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Biotechnology: Backlog of Patent Applications, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. Galyer, The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B.Y.L. Yablonsky, Body of Evidence, New York Times. (2008) M2216.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Physics: X
ISSN (print)2590-0552

Other styles