How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Campbell-Kelly M. Obituary: John Backus (1924-2007). Nature 2007;446:998.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ize B, Palmer T. Microbiology. Mycobacteria’s export strategy. Science 2006;313:1583–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shevenell AE, Kennett JP, Lea DW. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science 2004;305:1766–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang Y, He H, Li S, et al. All-optical regulation of gene expression in targeted cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:5346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevenson O. Neglected Children and Their Families. Oxford, UK: : Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2008.
An edited book
Rhim JS, Kremer R, editors. Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment. New York, NY: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Le Romancer M, Poulard C, Sentis S, et al. Post-translational Modifications of ER Alpha in Rapid Estrogen’s Action. In: Castoria G, Migliaccio A, eds. Advances in Rapid Sex-Steroid Action: New Challenges and New Chances in Breast and Prostate Cancers. New York, NY: : Springer 2012. 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Mental Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. 7 Deep Sea Dwellers Who Hardly Look Like Animals At All. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee S. Control-display alignment modulates dimensional salience. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlroth N, Wines M, Rosenberg M. Little Effort to Investigate in States Targeted by Election Hacking. New York Times. 2017;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Mental Health
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1362-0347
ISSN (online)1468-960X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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