How to format your references using the Journal of Competitiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Competitiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konner, M. (2002). Weaving life’s pattern. Nature, 418(6895), 279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fowler, J. H., & Schreiber, D. (2008). Biology, politics, and the emerging science of human nature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 912–914.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, Y., Jiang, J., & Huang, H. (2014). Chemical dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene with polyethylene glycol and hydroxide: dominant effect of temperature and ionic potential. Scientific Reports, 4, 6305.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Novelle, M. G., Vázquez, M. J., Martinello, K. D., Sanchez-Garrido, M. A., Tena-Sempere, M., & Diéguez, C. (2014). Neonatal events, such as androgenization and postnatal overfeeding, modify the response to ghrelin. Scientific Reports, 4, 4855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, J. (2007). Work Like You’re Showing Off! John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pan, M. (2015). Spectrum Trading in Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks (M. Li, P. Li, & Y. Fang, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Peterson, A. (2015). Civic Virtue and Global Responsibilities. In M. Print & C. Tan (Eds.), Educating “Good” Citizens in a Globalising World for the Twenty-First Century (pp. 49–64). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Competitiveness.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 9). The Cutting-Edge Science Taking On Some Of The World’s Most Notorious Parasitic Plants. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1966). Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958 (B-141387). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh, A. (2017). Improving the Usability of Typometric Solutions [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS. (2010, July 5). Love That Look, Wonder Woman. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Konner, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fowler & Schreiber, 2008; Konner, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fowler & Schreiber, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Xiao et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Novelle et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Competitiveness
ISSN (print)1804-171X
ISSN (online)1804-1728

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