How to format your references using the Journal of Competitiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Competitiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCann, K. S. (2000). The diversity-stability debate. Nature, 405(6783), 228–233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldblatt, C., & Zahnle, K. J. (2011). Faint young Sun paradox remains. Nature, 474(7349), E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Didham, R. K., Ewers, R. M., & Gemmell, N. J. (2005). Comment on “Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1412; author reply 1412.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marley, R., Giachello, C. N. G., Scrutton, N. S., Baines, R. A., & Jones, A. R. (2014). Cryptochrome-dependent magnetic field effect on seizure response in Drosophila larvae. Scientific Reports, 4, 5799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ralph, D., & Graham, P. (2004). MMS: Technologies, Usage and Business Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Daniels, J. C. (Ed.). (2015). Butterfly Conservation in North America: Efforts to help save our charismatic microfauna (1st ed. 2015). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hudson, M. J., Kim, R. G., & Goldberg, E. (2016). The Endoscopic Management of Biliary and Pancreatic Injury. In D. G. Adler (Ed.), Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Endoscopy (pp. 67–91). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Competitiveness.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 11). Australia’s Right Whales Are Recovering After Whaling Bans, But There Are Still Worrying Signs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the National Plan for Information Systems Protection (T-AIMD-00-72). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, E. (2015). Understanding help-seeking behavior among at-risk Latino male high school students [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J. (1977, September 25). COSMETIC LIB FOR MEN. New York Times, The New York Times Magazine234.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCann, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Goldblatt & Zahnle, 2011; McCann, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldblatt & Zahnle, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Didham et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Marley et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Competitiveness
ISSN (print)1804-171X
ISSN (online)1804-1728

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