How to format your references using the Journal of Competitiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Competitiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeLisi, C. (2008). Meetings that changed the world: Santa Fe 1986: Human genome baby-steps. Nature, 455(7215), 876–877.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pokrovski, G. S., & Dubrovinsky, L. S. (2011). The S3- ion is stable in geological fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6020), 1052–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sudhakar, Y. A., Verma, R. K., & Pawar, S. C. (2014). Type IV collagen α1-chain noncollagenous domain blocks MMP-2 activation both in-vitro and in-vivo. Scientific Reports, 4, 4136.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, Y., Ji, L., Huang, Q., Vassylyev, D. G., Chen, X., & Ma, J.-B. (2009). Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1. Nature, 461(7265), 823–827.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Bodic, G. (2005). Mobile Messaging Technologies and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sadahiro, Y. (Ed.). (2008). Spatial Data Infrastructure for Urban Regeneration (Vol. 5). Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Laskowski, M., & Mukhi, S. (2009). Agent-Based Simulation of Emergency Departments with Patient Diversion. In D. Weerasinghe (Ed.), Electronic Healthcare: First International Conference, eHealth 2008, London, UK, September 8-9, 2008. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 25–37). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Competitiveness.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 21). Humans Are “Super Predators” That Are Driving Widespread Extinction. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight (GAO-16-771). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna, S. G. (2012). Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The role of language and dialect contact in the formation of a new variety of U.S. Spanish [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M. S. (2017, July 11). Officials Cancel Plans to Build New Headquarters for the F.B.I. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeLisi, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (DeLisi, 2008; Pokrovski & Dubrovinsky, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pokrovski & Dubrovinsky, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Sudhakar et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Competitiveness
ISSN (print)1804-171X
ISSN (online)1804-1728

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