How to format your references using the Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Emissions targets “unrealistic” says US climate change body. Nature. 2000 Jul 27;406(6794):333–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knudsen BM, Andersen SB. Geophysics. Longitudinal variation in springtime ozone trends. Nature. 2001 Oct 18;413(6857):699–700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener TW, Losos JB, Spiller DA. Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns. Science. 2005 Dec 16;310(5755):1807–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gabriela F-V, Carlos L-F, José D-CM, Patricia C. How much confidence can be conferred on tectonic maps of continental shelves? The Cantabrian-Fault case. Sci. Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiang J, Zhang C. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Gueye CT, Molina MS, editors. Non-Associative and Non-Commutative Algebra and Operator Theory: NANCAOT, Dakar, Senegal, May 23–25, 2014: Workshop in Honor of Professor Amin Kaidi. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grefenstette E, Sadrzadeh M, Clark S, Coecke B, Pulman S. Concrete Sentence Spaces for Compositional Distributional Models of Meaning. In: Bunt H, Bos J, Pulman S, editors. Computing Meaning: Volume 4. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices.

Blog post
Hale T. How To Get Into The World’s Top University: Oxford Reveals Its Interview Questions. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teenage Drug Use: Uncertain Linkages With Either Pregnancy or School Dropout. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jan. Report No.: PEMD-91-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevier J. A preventative and treatment substance use program for GLBT adolescents in Long Beach: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016 Dec 2;MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Knudsen and Andersen 2001; Macilwain 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knudsen and Andersen 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabriela et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices
AbbreviationSci. Phone Apps Mob. Devices
ISSN (online)2364-4958

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