How to format your references using the Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osborne IS. The attraction of magnetism. Science. 2001 Nov 16;294(5546):1483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waddell S, Quinn WG. Neurobiology. Learning how a fruit fly forgets. Science. 2001 Aug 17;293(5533):1271–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu G, Golding GB, Dean AM. The selective cause of an ancient adaptation. Science. 2005 Feb 25;307(5713):1279–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bai Y, Han X, Zheng X-C, Qiao L. Both high reliability and giant electrocaloric strength in BaTiO₃ ceramics. Sci. Rep. 2013 Oct 8;3:2895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morley D. Communications and Mobility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Kassab GS, Sacks MS, editors. Structure-Based Mechanics of Tissues and Organs. 1st ed. 2016. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Spiess-Knafl W, Jansen SA. Social Enterprises and the Financing of Different Scaling Strategies. In: Pate L, Wankel C, editors. Emerging Research Directions in Social Entrepreneurship. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices.

Blog post
Andrew E. Shortlist Finalists Have Been Announced for Sony World Photography Awards. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Command and Control: Upgrades Allow Deferral of $500 Million Computer Acquisition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Feb. Report No.: IMTEC-88-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews A. Yoga as mental health treatment for cancer survivors: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. When Grease Is the Way You Are Feeling. New York Times. 2007 May 20;NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Osborne 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Osborne 2001; Waddell and Quinn 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waddell and Quinn 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bai et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices
AbbreviationSci. Phone Apps Mob. Devices
ISSN (online)2364-4958

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