How to format your references using the Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff D. ECONOMICS: “To Your Health” Is More Than a Toast to Economists. Science. 2000 Aug 25;289(5483):1275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parnell RJ, Buchanan-Smith HM. Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature. 2001 Jul 19;412(6844):294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aylward RB, Sutter RW, Heymann DL. Policy. OPV cessation--the final step to a “polio-free” world. Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):625–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ling JQ, Li T, Hu JF, Vu TH, Chen HL, Qiu XW, et al. CTCF mediates interchromosomal colocalization between Igf2/H19 and Wsb1/Nf1. Science. 2006 Apr 14;312(5771):269–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hellesland J, Challamel N, Casandjian C, Lanos C. Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Lindler LE, Lebeda FJ, Korch GW, editors. Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández-Tobías I, Campos PG, Cantador I, Díez F. A Contextual Modeling Approach for Model-Based Recommender Systems. In: Bielza C, Salmerón A, Alonso-Betanzos A, Hidalgo JI, Martínez L, Troncoso A, et al., editors. Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 15th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 17-20, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices.

Blog post
Hale T. You Can Now Listen To A Song That Hasn’t Been Played For 1,000 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal-Aid Highways: Improved Guidance Could Enhance States’ Use of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Jun. Report No.: GAO-13-544.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nash MC. Reading Achievement: A Study of Perceptions of First-Grade Teachers and the Relationship Between Attendance and Reading Achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. LCD Soundsystem Tops Album Chart. New York Times. 2017 Sep 11;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff 2000; Parnell and Buchanan-Smith 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parnell and Buchanan-Smith 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ling et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleScientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices
AbbreviationSci. Phone Apps Mob. Devices
ISSN (online)2364-4958

Other styles