How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yaalon DH. Down to earth. Nature. 2000;407(6802):301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hugall AF, Stuart-Fox D. Accelerated speciation in colour-polymorphic birds. Nature. 2012;485(7400):631-634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pertea M, Salzberg SL, Gardner MJ. Finding genes in Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 2000;404(6773):34; discussion 34-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grujić J, Gracia-Lázaro C, Milinski M, et al. A comparative analysis of spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments: conditional cooperation and payoff irrelevance. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings S. Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Browning DJ, ed. Diabetic Retinopathy: Evidence-Based Management. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Quang NP, Dittrich JA. Problems of actual-value measurement and vector orientation. In: Dittrich JA, ed. Vector Control of Three-Phase AC Machines: System Development in the Practice. Power Systems. Springer; 2008:107-141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Fasting Might Make Our Cells More Resilient To Stress. IFLScience. Published March 26, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Math and Science Education: Comprehensive Information About Federally Funded Materials Not Available. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot AR. Student Perception of Relevance of Biology Content to Everyday Life: A Study in Higher Education Biology Courses. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herszenhorn DM, Barry E. Russian Voters Send a Message To Putin’s Party. New York Times. December 4, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Humanities
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Humanit.
ISSN (print)1556-3499
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles