How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
NOSSAL, G.J.V. 2003: The double helix and immunology. Nature 421: 440–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
KALE, M.J. & P. CHRISTOPHER 2015: PHYSICS. Plasmons at the interface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 349: 587–588.
A journal article with 3 authors
GARCIA, P., R. ARMSTRONG & M.H. ZAMAN 2014: Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 1281–1283.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
ZHANG, Z., J.-J. CHEN, X.-J. LYU, H. YIN & G.-P. SHENG 2014: Complete mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by γ-irradiation in aqueous solution. Scientific reports 4: 7418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
FEDERER, W.T. & F. KING 2007: Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
SUSILO, W., Y. MU & J. SEBERRY eds. 2012: 7372 Information Security and Privacy: 17th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2012, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, July 9-11, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
TZARTZANIS, N. 2009: Exploiting Inductance. In: T. Xanthopoulos (Ed), Clocking in Modern VLSI Systems. Integrated Circuits and Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 105–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. 2015: No, The World Isn’t Going To End In September 2015. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 2014: NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BROTHERS, J. 2009: Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ALEXANDER, K. 2003: A Squeeze Box Philharmonic. New York Times: 227.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nossal 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kale & Christopher 2015; Nossal 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kale & Christopher 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

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