How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
BOGER, D.L. 2015: ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. When sugar is not so sweet. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350: 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
LEVITAN, D.R. & D.L. FERRELL 2006: Selection on gamete recognition proteins depends on sex, density, and genotype frequency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 267–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
MOSEY, N.J., M.H. MÜSER & T.K. WOO 2005: Molecular mechanisms for the functionality of lubricant additives. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1612–1615.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
WENDELN, A.-C., K. DEGENHARDT, L. KAURANI, M. GERTIG, T. ULAS, G. JAIN, J. WAGNER, L.M. HÄSLER, K. WILD, A. SKODRAS, T. BLANK, O. STASZEWSKI, M. DATTA, T.P. CENTENO, V. CAPECE, M.R. ISLAM, C. KERIMOGLU, M. STAUFENBIEL, J.L. SCHULTZE, M. BEYER, M. PRINZ, M. JUCKER, A. FISCHER & J.J. NEHER 2018: Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks. Nature 556: 332–338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
BERTO, F. 2009: There’s Something about Gödel. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
KELLY, J.D., IV ed. 2016: Elite Techniques in Shoulder Arthroscopy: New Frontiers in Shoulder Preservation. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
GIRARDI, D., M. GIRETZLEHNER & J. KÜNG 2012: Using Generic Meta-Data-Models for Clustering Medical Data. In: C. Böhm, S. Khuri, L. Lhotská, and M. E. Renda (Eds), Information Technology in Bio- and Medical Informatics: Third International Conference, ITBAM 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 4-5, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 40–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
HALE, T. 2017: The Winners Of The 2016 Underwater Photography Competition Are Absolutely Amazing. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 2003: Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
GOLDSTEIN, T.W. 2010: Writing in red: The East German Writers Union and the role of literary intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GRYNBAUM, M.M. 2017: Turning Up the Pro-Trump Volume. New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boger 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boger 2015; Levitan & Ferrell 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levitan & Ferrell 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wendeln et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

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