How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
KORIAT, A. 2012: When are two heads better than one and why? Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 360–362.
A journal article with 2 authors
CATLOW, R. & A. FISHER 2011: Marshall Stoneham (1940-2011). Nature 471: 306.
A journal article with 3 authors
EXADAKTYLOS, F., A.M. ESPÍN & P. BRAÑAS-GARZA 2013: Experimental subjects are not different. Scientific reports 3: 1213.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
BORNEMANN, A., R.D. NORRIS, O. FRIEDRICH, B. BECKMANN, S. SCHOUTEN, J.S.S. DAMSTÉ, J. VOGEL, P. HOFMANN & T. WAGNER 2008: Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the Cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 189–192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
FRANSSEN, J.-M. & P.V. REAL 2010: Fire Design of Steel Structures. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
GRAZIOTTIN, A. 2011: Vulvodinia: Strategie di diagnosi e cura. F. Murina (Ed). Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
YILBAS, B.S. & S.Z. SHUJA 2013: Laser Induced Evaporation at the Surface. In: S. Z. Shuja (Ed), Laser Surface Processing and Model Studies. Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 81–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
FANG, J. 2014: Stem Cell Injections Revitalize Failing Hearts, Trial Results Show. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 1984: U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MORRISON, C. 2009: Who am I? Identity formation of children in foster care: A curriculum development. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WILLIAMS, J. 2017: The Head Honcho’s Head Honcho. New York Times: BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koriat 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Catlow & Fisher 2011; Koriat 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Catlow & Fisher 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bornemann et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

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