How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’MAILLE, P. 2015: Microbiology: Fungus against the wall. Nature 521: 168–169.
A journal article with 2 authors
ZACHARIAH, M.A. & J.G. CYSTER 2010: Neural crest-derived pericytes promote egress of mature thymocytes at the corticomedullary junction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 1129–1135.
A journal article with 3 authors
LAMBECK, K., T.M. ESAT & E.-K. POTTER 2002: Links between climate and sea levels for the past three million years. Nature 419: 199–206.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
ROSEBECK, S., L. MADDEN, X. JIN, S. GU, I.J. APEL, A. APPERT, R.A. HAMOUDI, H. NOELS, X. SAGAERT, P. VAN LOO, M. BAENS, M.-Q. DU, P.C. LUCAS & L.M. MCALLISTER-LUCAS 2011: Cleavage of NIK by the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein leads to noncanonical NF-kappaB activation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331: 468–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SAMUELS, S. 2011: Reading the American Novel 1780-1865. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
RAHMAN, S., T. STREET & H. TAHIRI eds. 2008: 11 The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
VORLÄNDER, H. 2013: Bringing Democracy Back In? From Local Politics to Global Politics. In: J.-C. Merle (Ed), Spheres of Global Justice: Volume 1 Global Challenges to Liberal Democracy. Political Participation, Minorities and Migrations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 75–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
FANG, J. 2014: Starving Female Mantises Eat Males Without Having Sex First. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 1993: Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
FINLEY, S. 2014: How online communication and social media networking are used in alcohol use treatment. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
VECSEY, G. 2010: Thanks for the Tasteless Sermon. New York Times: B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Maille 2015).
This sentence cites two references (O’Maille 2015; Zachariah & Cyster 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zachariah & Cyster 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosebeck et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

Other styles