How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MILLER, C. 2006: Biophysics. Lonely voltage sensor seeks protons for permeation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 534–535.
A journal article with 2 authors
GUIGÓ, R. & J. VALCÁRCEL 2015: RNA. Prescribing splicing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 124–125.
A journal article with 3 authors
SCHOLL, J.A., A.L. KOH & J.A. DIONNE 2012: Quantum plasmon resonances of individual metallic nanoparticles. Nature 483: 421–427.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
WALLRAFF, A., D.I. SCHUSTER, A. BLAIS, L. FRUNZIO, R.-S. HUANG, J. MAJER, S. KUMAR, S.M. GIRVIN & R.J. SCHOELKOPF 2004: Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics. Nature 431: 162–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
WAHBI, M. 2013: Algorithms and Ordering Heuristics for Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
MUSAZZI, S. & U. PERINI eds. 2014: 182 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
REFSDAL, A., B. SOLHAUG & K. STØLEN 2015: Cybersecurity. In: B. Solhaug and K. Stølen (Eds), Cyber-Risk Management. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 29–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
FANG, J. 2016: Researchers Have Sequenced Giraffe and Okapi Genomes For The First Time. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 1994: [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PAUSTIAN, M.E. 2010: Evaluating competition between the non-native slug Arion subfuscus and the native slug Philomycus carolinianus. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WOGAN, J. 2016: Accommodations; Equestrian Escape. New York Times: ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Guigó & Valcárcel 2015; Miller 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guigó & Valcárcel 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallraff et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

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