How to format your references using the Arachnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
PRELEC, D. 2004: A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 462–466.
A journal article with 2 authors
BERNAYS, E.A. & M.S. SINGER 2005: Insect defences: taste alteration and endoparasites. Nature 436: 476.
A journal article with 3 authors
COLÓN-RAMOS, D.A., M.A. MARGETA & K. SHEN 2007: Glia promote local synaptogenesis through UNC-6 (netrin) signaling in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 103–106.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
CROOK, R., A.C. GRAHAM, C.G. SMITH, I. FARRER, H.E. BEERE & D.A. RITCHIE 2003: Erasable electrostatic lithography for quantum components. Nature 424: 751–754.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
NEUPERT, R. 2011: French Animation History. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
HOSONO, A., M. IIZUKA & J. KATZ eds. 2016: Chile’s Salmon Industry: Policy Challenges in Managing Public Goods. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
BRAVERMAN, M. 2013: Noise versus Computational Intractability in Dynamics. In: P. Bonizzoni, V. Brattka, and B. Löwe (Eds), The Nature of Computation. Logic, Algorithms, Applications: 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 32–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachnology.

Blog post
ANDREWS, R. 2016: Wet Asteroids Brought Water To A Magma-Covered Ancient Moon. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 1990: Aircraft Maintenance: Air Force Transferred and Eliminated Tasks to Address Funding Shortfalls. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MOREAU, E.L. 2014: Sailing on a Sea of Hope: Exploring the Impact of Federal Consolidation on Individual Identification and Organizational Identity. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
SISARIO, B. 2017: Country Breakthrough On the Billboard Chart. New York Times: C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prelec 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bernays & Singer 2005; Prelec 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bernays & Singer 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Crook et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachnology
ISSN (print)2050-9928
ISSN (online)2050-9936
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

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