How to format your references using the Journal of Child and Family Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Child and Family Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benniston, A. (2013). Chemistry. Corralling positively charged molecular radicals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6118), 404–405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boller, T., & He, S. Y. (2009). Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 742–744.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klaholz, B. P., Myasnikov, A. G., & Van Heel, M. (2004). Visualization of release factor 3 on the ribosome during termination of protein synthesis. Nature, 427(6977), 862–865.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakamura, A., Kaneko, N., Villemagne, V. L., Kato, T., Doecke, J., Doré, V., et al. (2018). High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. Nature, 554(7691), 249–254.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phelan, J. (2013). Reading the American Novel 1920-2010. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Oliveira, L. B. (2008). Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators. (J. R. Fernandes, I. M. Filanovsky, C. J. M. Verhoeven, & M. M. Silva, Eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Imura, K., & Okamoto, H. (2011). Near-Field Optical Imaging of Wavefunctions and Optical Fields in Plasmonic Nanostructures. In M. Ohtsu (Ed.), Progress in Nanophotonics 1 (pp. 127–160). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 26). Most of Africa May Lose Half Their Lions in 20 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Operation of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal (No. 115478). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S. J. (2006). The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2007, July 8). Hotel Rooms Become Overnight Stars. New York Times, p. AR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benniston 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Benniston 2013; Boller and He 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boller and He 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakamura et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Child and Family Studies
AbbreviationJ. Child Fam. Stud.
ISSN (print)1062-1024
ISSN (online)1573-2843
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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