How to format your references using the International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlop JS. The cosmic history of star formation. Science 2011;333:178–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laver G, Garman E. Virology. The origin and control of pandemic influenza. Science 2001;293:1776–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grzybowski BA, Stone HA, Whitesides GM. Dynamic self-assembly of magnetized, millimetre-sized objects rotating at a liquid-air interface. Nature 2000;405:1033–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu S, Jiang Y, Xu H, Wang J, Lin S, Chen H, et al. Realization of deep subwavelength resolution with singular media. Sci Rep 2014;4:5212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd RK, Basic C, Bethem RA. Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Andreescu T. Complex Numbers from A to ... Z. 2nd ed. 2014. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Welsch GH, Hennig FF, Mauerer A. Clinical Application of Biochemical Imaging of Cartilage. In: Kim Y-J, Mamisch TC, editors. Hip Magnetic Resonance Imaging, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems.

Blog post
Davis J. EPA Accidentally Contaminates River With Millions Of Gallons Of Toxic Waste. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Security: Hackers Penetrate DOD Computer Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann R. The fascist reflection Japan and Italy, 1919-1950. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Few Voters Show Up to Elect Two Democrats. New York Times 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
ISSN (print)0142-0615
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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