How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Minetti AE. Physiology: efficiency of equine express postal systems. Nature. 2003;426(6968):785-786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coburn W, Boggs SE. Polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst of 6 December 2002. Nature. 2003;423(6938):415-417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlsson MP, Tervo DGR, Karpova AY. Network resets in medial prefrontal cortex mark the onset of behavioral uncertainty. Science. 2012;338(6103):135-139.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen Z, Xu Z, Sun S, et al. TGF-β1, IL-6, and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: useful markers for lung cancer? Sci Rep. 2014;4:5595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çapin TK, Pandzic IS, Magnenat-Thalmann N, Thalmann D. Avatars in Networked Virtual Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
Adhikari R, Thapa S, eds. Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine II: First International Conference (ICIDN – 2012), Dec. 15-18, 2012, Kathmandu, Nepal. Vol 808. Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ishikawa T, Guan Y, Chen Y-C, Oguro H, Kasuga M, Ayama M. Kansei Evaluation of HDR Color Images with Different Tone Curves and Sizes – Foundational Investigation of Difference between Japanese and Chinese. In: Harris D, ed. Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 9th International Conference, EPCE 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:38-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. Man With Crohn’s Disease Shares Photo Of All The Medical Equipment He Uses Every Day To Prove That Looks Are Deceiving. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones E. Leadership Practices in K-12 Public Schools for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: A Qualitative Study. Published online 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowan AL. Family’s Tenacity and Wealth Put Skakel at Cusp of Freedom. New York Times. November 20, 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiovascular Disease Research
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.
ISSN (print)0975-3583
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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