How to format your references using the Animal Feed Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Feed Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston, K.J., 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405, 220–227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johansson, S., Letokhov, V., 2001. Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization of ions by Lyman alpha radiation in gaseous nebulae. Science 291, 625–627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ramer, M.S., Priestley, J.V., McMahon, S.B., 2000. Functional regeneration of sensory axons into the adult spinal cord. Nature 403, 312–316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miller, J.M., Raymond, J., Fabian, A., Steeghs, D., Homan, J., Reynolds, C., van der Klis, M., Wijnands, R., 2006. The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes. Nature 441, 953–955.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safonov, V.O., 2007. Using Aspect-Oriented Programming for Trustworthy Software Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Barceló, D., Hansen, P.-D. (Eds.), 2009. Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Bioanalytical and Chemical Methods for Endocrine Disruptors, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Devaraj, P., Yugesh, S., 2015. Reconstruction of Multiply Generated Splines from Local Average Samples, in: Agrawal, P.N., Mohapatra, R.N., Singh, U., Srivastava, H.M. (Eds.), Mathematical Analysis and Its Applications: Roorkee, India, December 2014, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 63–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Feed Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Gamification Harnesses The Power Of Games To Motivate [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Gulf War Illnesses: Federal Research Efforts Have Waned, and Research Findings Have Not Been Reassessed (No. GAO-04-815T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blandin, N.M., 2008. Re-conceptualizing leadership for an era of complexity and uncertainty: A case study of leadership in a complex adaptive system (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J.F., 2016. Choosing a Place to Settle Down in the Age of Fitbit. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaston, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gaston, 2000; Johansson and Letokhov, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johansson and Letokhov, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Feed Science and Technology
AbbreviationAnim. Feed Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0377-8401
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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