How to format your references using the Animal Feed Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Feed Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swanson, R.M., 2009. Applied physics. Photovoltaics power up. Science 324, 891–892.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawakatsu, H., Watada, S., 2007. Seismic evidence for deep-water transportation in the mantle. Science 316, 1468–1471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones, M.R., Seeman, N.C., Mirkin, C.A., 2015. Nanomaterials. Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond. Science 347, 1260901.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Butov, L.V., Lai, C.W., Ivanov, A.L., Gossard, A.C., Chemla, D.S., 2002. Towards Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in potential traps. Nature 417, 47–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher, V.M., Proudovsky, A.M., 2016. Hydraulic Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bernier, J. (Ed.), 2011. Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Management. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas, T.J., Zwinderman, A.H., 2014. Loglinear Models for Assessing Incident Rates with Varying Incident Risks (12 Populations with Different Drink Consumption Patterns), in: Zwinderman, A.H. (Ed.), Machine Learning in Medicine - Cookbook Three, SpringerBriefs in Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Feed Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. New Evidence Suggests There Are More Dwarf Planets In Our Solar System [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Highway Projects--Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects as of April 30, 2004 (No. GAO-04-935R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pratt, P.R., 2009. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the LENSTM process for steels using the finite element method (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2011. Panel to Scrutinize Causes Behind Weak State Budgets. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swanson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kawakatsu and Watada, 2007; Swanson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kawakatsu and Watada, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Butov et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Feed Science and Technology
AbbreviationAnim. Feed Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0377-8401
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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