How to format your references using the Animal Feed Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Feed Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharp, T., 2006. Neuroscience. A new molecule to brighten the mood. Science 311, 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp, M.D., Pogliano, K., 2002. Role of cell-specific SpoIIIE assembly in polarity of DNA transfer. Science 295, 137–139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, F., Tillberg, P.W., Boyden, E.S., 2015. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. Science 347, 543–548.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barken, D., Wang, C.J., Kearns, J., Cheong, R., Hoffmann, A., Levchenko, A., 2005. Comment on “Oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling control the dynamics of gene expression.” Science 308, 52; author reply 52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braudeau, E., Assi, A.T., Mohtar, R.H., 2016. Hydrostructural Pedology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Eilks, I., Hofstein, A. (Eds.), 2015. Relevant Chemistry Education: From Theory to Practice. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Panda, S., 2015. Factors Affecting Capital Structure of Indian Venture Capital-Backed Growth Firms, in: Manimala, M.J., Wasdani, K.P. (Eds.), Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: Perspectives from Emerging Economies. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 133–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Feed Science and Technology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Bats Navigate in 3D Using a Donut-Shaped Compass in Their Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial Performance of Amtrak’s Routes (No. RCED-98-151). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin, Y.-S., 2009. Virtuoso piano transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian tradition in the twenty-first century (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2003. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Tracking Foreigners. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sharp, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Sharp and Pogliano, 2002; Sharp, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharp and Pogliano, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Barken et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Feed Science and Technology
AbbreviationAnim. Feed Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0377-8401
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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