How to format your references using the Animal Feed Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Feed Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. The waiting game. Nature 428, 235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melbourne, B.A., Hastings, A., 2008. Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity. Nature 454, 100–103.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogata, S., Li, J., Yip, S., 2002. Ideal pure shear strength of aluminum and copper. Science 298, 807–811.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Myong, S., Rasnik, I., Joo, C., Lohman, T.M., Ha, T., 2005. Repetitive shuttling of a motor protein on DNA. Nature 437, 1321–1325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon, A., Itmi, M., 2016. New Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Berendt, B., Hotho, A., Mladenic, D., Semeraro, G. (Eds.), 2007. From Web to Social Web: Discovering and Deploying User and Content Profiles: Workshop on Web Mining, WebMine 2006, Berlin, Germany, September 18, 2006. Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Deeg, K.-H., 2015. Doppler Sonography of the Head and Neck, in: Rupprecht, T., Hofbeck, M. (Eds.), Doppler Sonography in Infancy and Childhood. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 229–272.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Feed Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Brainy Bones: The Hidden Complexity Inside Your Skeleton [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Longstanding Management and Oversight Weaknesses Continue to Put Investments at Risk (No. GAO-03-553T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, E.L., 2015. Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. Time Takes the Sharp Edges Off a Femme Fatale in a David Hare Revival. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Melbourne and Hastings, 2008; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melbourne and Hastings, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Myong et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Feed Science and Technology
AbbreviationAnim. Feed Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0377-8401
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles