How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tollestrup AV: Robert Rathbun Wilson (1914-2000). Nature 404:350, 2000
A journal article with 2 authors
Sieweke MH, Allen JE: Beyond stem cells: self-renewal of differentiated macrophages. Science 342:1242974, 2013
A journal article with 3 authors
Raebiger H, Lany S, Zunger A: Charge self-regulation upon changing the oxidation state of transition metals in insulators. Nature 453:763–6, 2008
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rodrigo-Navarro A, Rico P, Saadeddin A, et al: Living biointerfaces based on non-pathogenic bacteria to direct cell differentiation. Sci. Rep. 4:5849, 2014

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves R: Joomla!® Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009,
An edited book
Hakeem KR, Akhtar J, Sabir M, editors: Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Prospectives. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016,
A chapter in an edited book
Nunes BG, Costa JP, Godinho P: On the Application of AHP to the Diagnostic of Portuguese SME, in: Hernández JE, Liu S, Delibašić B, et al, eds. (ed): Decision Support Systems II - Recent Developments Applied to DSS Network Environments: Euro Working Group Workshop, EWG-DSS 2012, Liverpool, UK, April 12-13, 2012, and Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8-11, 2012, Revised Selected and Extended Papers Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013, pp 57–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.

Blog post
Andrew EIFLScience IFLScience,Retrieved from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability OfficeWashington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office,

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Metcalfe ACLong Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haikalis G: Don’t Rehab La Guardia Airport. Close It. New York Times:A25, 2015

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
ISSN (print)1053-0770
ISSN (online)1532-8422
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles