How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Plotkin JB: Cell biology. The lives of proteins. Science 331:683–4, 2011
A journal article with 2 authors
Thursby J, Thursby M: Research and development. Where is the new science in corporate R&D? Science 314:1547–8, 2006
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu J, Gong P, Zhou X: The association between romantic relationship status and 5-HT1A gene in young adults. Sci. Rep. 4:7049, 2014
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hayashi Y, Lo N, Miyata H, et al: Sex-linked genetic influence on caste determination in a termite. Science 318:985–7, 2007

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicu L, Leïchlé T: Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013,
An edited book
Ho Y-S, editor: Advances in Image and Video Technology: 5th Pacific Rim Symposium, PSIVT 2011, Gwangju, South Korea, November 20-23, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012,
A chapter in an edited book
Du Y, Wang X, Yao J: Probability Based Timed Compatibility of Web Service Composition, in: Wang Y, Li T, eds. (ed): Practical Applications of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011) Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 31–9

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.

Blog post
Fang JIFLScience IFLScience,Retrieved from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability OfficeWashington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office,

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thirumal VM Lafayette, LA, University of Louisiana,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK: World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Panel To Study Reforms. New York Times:A6, 2002

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
ISSN (print)1053-0770
ISSN (online)1532-8422
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles