How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D: World view: Brick by brick. Nature 465:29, 2010
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoppins S, Nunnari J: Cell Biology. Mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis--the ER connection. Science 337:1052–4, 2012
A journal article with 3 authors
Foth C, Tischlinger H, Rauhut OWM: New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature 511:79–82, 2014
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Günther T, Chen ZF, Kim J, et al: Genetic ablation of parathyroid glands reveals another source of parathyroid hormone. Nature 406:199–203, 2000

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sutt J, Lill I, Müürsepp O: The Engineer’s Manual of Construction Site Planning. Oxford, John Wiley & Sons, 2013,
An edited book
Amara SG, Bamberg E, Grinstein S, et al, editors: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006,
A chapter in an edited book
Yang F, Lu H, Chen Y-W: Human Tracking by Multiple Kernel Boosting with Locality Affinity Constraints, in: Kimmel R, Klette R, Sugimoto A, eds. (ed): Computer Vision – ACCV 2010: 10th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part IV Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 39–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.

Blog post
Andrew EIFLScience IFLScience,Retrieved from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability OfficeWashington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office,

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson DCincinnati, OH, University of Cincinnati,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E: Media Talk; Dialing Sister Souljah at WLIB. New York Times:D8, 1998

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
ISSN (print)1053-0770
ISSN (online)1532-8422
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles