How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwood R: Reach out to defend evolution. Nature 485:281, 2012
A journal article with 2 authors
Hathaway DH, Rightmire L: Variations in the Sun’s meridional flow over a solar cycle. Science 327:1350–2, 2010
A journal article with 3 authors
Weber JN, Peterson BK, Hoekstra HE: Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice. Nature 493:402–5, 2013
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Drummond SP, Brown GG, Gillin JC, et al: Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation. Nature 403:655–7, 2000

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary SA: Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010,
An edited book
Abbasi AM: Wild Edible Vegetables of Lesser Himalayas: Ethnobotanical and Nutraceutical Aspects, Volume 1. Shah MH, Khan MA, eds. (ed): Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015,
A chapter in an edited book
Carvalho G, Carvalho A, Rocha E, et al: A Formal Model for Natural-Language Timed Requirements of Reactive Systems, in: Merz S, Pang J, eds. (ed): Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 16th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2014, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, November 3-5, 2014. Proceedings Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 43–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.

Blog post
Hale TIFLScience IFLScience,Retrieved from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability OfficeWashington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office,

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins JTWashington, DC, George Washington University,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B, Alter A, Chan S: Bob Dylan Wins Nobel Prize, Redefining the Boundaries of Literature. New York Times:A18, 2016

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
ISSN (print)1053-0770
ISSN (online)1532-8422
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles