How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White TD: Obituary: F. Clark Howell (1925-2007). Nature 447:52, 2007
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnakota RK, Genov DA: Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. Sci. Rep. 4:4899, 2014
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilman RT, Nuismer SL, Jhwueng D-C: Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature 483:328–30, 2012
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mollereau B, Dominguez M, Webel R, et al: Two-step process for photoreceptor formation in Drosophila. Nature 412:911–3, 2001

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohos FÁ: Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017,
An edited book
Dion P, Nautiyal CS, editors: Microbiology of Extreme Soils. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008,
A chapter in an edited book
Pereira-Sáez C: Philosophical Imperialism? A Critical View of North American Principlist Bioethics, in: Serna P, Seoane J-A, eds. (ed): Bioethical Decision Making and Argumentation Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 43–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability OfficeWashington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office,

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
To KSLong Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: Charleston Chews And Sugar Babies: Fistfuls of Nostalgia. New York Times:NJ11, 2010

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
ISSN (print)1053-0770
ISSN (online)1532-8422
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles