How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binzel, Richard P. “Planetary Science. A Golden Spike for Planetary Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338, no. 6104 (October 12, 2012): 203–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blázquez, M. A., and D. Weigel. “Integration of Floral Inductive Signals in Arabidopsis.” Nature 404, no. 6780 (April 20, 2000): 889–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoouline, V., C. H. Greene, and B. D. Esry. “Mechanism for the Destruction of H+3 Ions by Electron Impact.” Nature 412, no. 6850 (August 30, 2001): 891–94.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cox, M. M., M. F. Goodman, K. N. Kreuzer, D. J. Sherratt, S. J. Sandler, and K. J. Marians. “The Importance of Repairing Stalled Replication Forks.” Nature 404, no. 6773 (March 2, 2000): 37–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko, Victor E., and Stefano Ossicini. What Is What in the Nanoworld. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
Oh, Seog-Chan. Analytics for Smart Energy Management: Tools and Applications for Sustainable Manufacturing. Edited by Alfred J. Hildreth. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Meinel, Dietmar, Andreas Staude, and Karsten Ehrig. “Analyzing Microstructure and Damage in Construction Materials with 3D Micro CT.” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on 3D Materials Science, edited by Dominique Bernard, Jean-Yves Buffière, Tresa Pollock, Henning Friis Poulsen, Anthony Rollett, and Michael Uchic, 23–28. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. “Watch An Entire Lake Disappear Down A Hole.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 7, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Aviation Weather: Services at Key Aviation Facilities Lack Performance Measures, but Improvement Efforts Are Under Way.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 26, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goshin, Lorie S. “Behavior Problems and Competence in Preschoolers Who Spent Their First One to Eighteen Months in a Prison Nursery Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. “Cuban Comfort.” New York Times, November 9, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

Other styles