How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, Barry J. “Development. Wiring the Brain with Insulin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, no. 5618 (April 18, 2003): 440–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papasaikas, Panagiotis, and Juan Valcárcel. “Evolution. Splicing in 4D.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338, no. 6114 (December 21, 2012): 1547–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lönnstedt, Oona M., Mark I. McCormick, and Douglas P. Chivers. “Predator-Induced Changes in the Growth of Eyes and False Eyespots.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 2259.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Feng, Yan, Hui Liu, Pengfei Wang, Feng Ye, Qiangqiang Tan, and Jun Yang. “Enhancing the Electrocatalytic Property of Hollow Structured Platinum Nanoparticles for Methanol Oxidation through a Hybrid Construction.” Scientific Reports 4 (August 27, 2014): 6204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schrör, Karsten. Acetylsalicylic Acid. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2016.
An edited book
Akama, Seiki, ed. Towards Paraconsistent Engineering. Vol. 110. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grofman, Bernard. “Kenneth J. Arrow (1921 - ).” In Readings in Public Choice and Constitutional Political Economy, edited by Friedrich G. Schneider, 85–90. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. “Hidden Scars On Brains Of Military Personnel Could Explain How Bomb Shockwaves Damage Cognition.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 9, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Technology: HUD’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan Satisfies Statutory Conditions.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 24, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laskey, Emma. “Plasma Glucagon during Development of Insulin Resistance among Healthy Individuals.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. “Deadly, Stylish Comfort.” New York Times, April 18, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

Other styles