How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Du Pasquier, Louis. “Immunology. Insects Diversify One Molecule to Serve Two Systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, no. 5742 (September 16, 2005): 1826–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zou, Zhihua, and Linda B. Buck. “Combinatorial Effects of Odorant Mixes in Olfactory Cortex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, no. 5766 (March 10, 2006): 1477–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brockmann, D., L. Hufnagel, and T. Geisel. “The Scaling Laws of Human Travel.” Nature 439, no. 7075 (January 26, 2006): 462–65.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Alam, M. Samiul, Jennifer L. Kuo, Peter B. Ernst, Victoria Derr-Castillo, Marion Pereira, Dennis Gaines, Matthew Costales, Elmer Bigley, and Kristina Williams. “Ecto-5’-Nucleotidase (CD73) Regulates Host Inflammatory Responses and Exacerbates Murine Salmonellosis.” Scientific Reports 4 (March 27, 2014): 4486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, Martin. From GSM to LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Jayakumar, Rangasamy, M. Prabaharan, and Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli, eds. Chitosan for Biomaterials II. Vol. 244. Advances in Polymer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Matsumoto, Akio, and Ferenc Szidarovszky. “Relation to Other Mathematical Problems.” In Game Theory and Its Applications, edited by Ferenc Szidarovszky, 49–52. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. “Dr Henry Heimlich Uses His Heimlich Maneuver For First Time Aged 96.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 1, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Airline Competition: Effects of Airline Market Concentration and Barriers to Entry on Airfares.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 26, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rehman, Jessica Lee. “Rape as Religious Terrorism and Genocide the 1971 War between East and West Pakistan.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. “Crawl Space: Terror: Available Now In Three New Styles.” New York Times, August 4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

Other styles