How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. “Postdocs Reject Academic Research.” Nature 407, no. 6802 (September 21, 2000): 429–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fakhraai, Z., and J. A. Forrest. “Measuring the Surface Dynamics of Glassy Polymers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, no. 5863 (February 1, 2008): 600–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Ye, Xianren Zhang, and Dapeng Cao. “The Role of Shape Complementarity in the Protein-Protein Interactions.” Scientific Reports 3 (November 20, 2013): 3271.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tommasi, A., B. Gibert, U. Seipold, and D. Mainprice. “Anisotropy of Thermal Diffusivity in the Upper Mantle.” Nature 411, no. 6839 (June 14, 2001): 783–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarry, Pierre, and Jacques N. Beneat. Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Gewertz, Bruce L. The Best Medicine: A Physician’s Guide to Effective Leadership. Edited by Dave C. Logan. New York, NY: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Susilawati Japri. “The Language of Shop Signs in a Modern Shopping Centre in Brunei.” In The Use and Status of Language in Brunei Darussalam: A Kingdom of Unexpected Linguistic Diversity, edited by Noor Azam Haji-Othman, James McLellan, and David Deterding, 29–38. Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Cancer Drug Shows Promise In Treating Spinal Cord Injuries.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 16, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Technology Utilization by the Federal Government.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 12, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunathilaka, Dilhari. “Compliance with Dietary Restrictions among African American Older Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Nursing Home Setting.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. “Art and Its Inspiration, Side by Side.” New York Times, July 12, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

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