How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Warnock, Mary. “The Ethical Regulation of Science.” Nature 450, no. 7170 (November 29, 2007): 615.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gregg, J. Marty, and Amit Kumar. “Applied Physics: Trawling for Complements.” Nature 510, no. 7506 (June 26, 2014): 481–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti, Alessandro, Laura Brandimarte, and George Loewenstein. “Privacy and Human Behavior in the Age of Information.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347, no. 6221 (January 30, 2015): 509–14.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meghraoui, M., B. Delouis, M. Ferry, D. Giardini, P. Huggenberger, I. Spottke, and M. Granet. “Active Normal Faulting in the Upper Rhine Graben and Paleoseismic Identification of the 1356 Basel Earthquake.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, no. 5537 (September 14, 2001): 2070–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malina, Mike. Delivering Sustainable Buildings. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Dall, Bruce E., Sonia V. Eden, and Michael D. Rahl, eds. Surgery for the Painful, Dysfunctional Sacroiliac Joint: A Clinical Guide. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa, Masatoshi, and Ichiro Nishizaki. “Some Applications.” In Cooperative and Noncooperative Multi-Level Programming, edited by Ichiro Nishizaki and Masatoshi Sakawa, 181–237. Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. “‘Gunshot’ Sounds Used to Spot Whale Breeding Grounds.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 27, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Public Education: Meeting the Needs of Students With Limited English Proficiency.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 23, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richards, Oscar. “Teachers’ Perceptions About the Value of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barboza, David. “Chinese Giant Rose on a Web Of Family Ties.” New York Times, July 19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

Other styles