How to format your references using the First World War Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First World War Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonhardt, Ulf. “Optical Conformal Mapping.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, no. 5781 (June 23, 2006): 1777–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braithwaite, Jonathan, and Hendrik C. Spruit. “A Fossil Origin for the Magnetic Field in A Stars and White Dwarfs.” Nature 431, no. 7010 (October 14, 2004): 819–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao, Yuan, Guanrong Chen, and Rosa H. M. Chan. “Naming Game on Networks: Let Everyone Be Both Speaker and Hearer.” Scientific Reports 4 (August 21, 2014): 6149.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Strigari, Louis E., James S. Bullock, Manoj Kaplinghat, Joshua D. Simon, Marla Geha, Beth Willman, and Matthew G. Walker. “A Common Mass Scale for Satellite Galaxies of the Milky Way.” Nature 454, no. 7208 (August 28, 2008): 1096–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beagle, Jay R. Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Otto, Michael, and Stefan Hofmann, eds. Avoiding Treatment Failures in the Anxiety Disorders. Series in Anxiety and Related Disorders. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Eidem, Benjamin W. “Functional Evaluation of the Heart by Transesophageal Echocardiography.” In Transesophageal Echocardiography for Congenital Heart Disease, edited by Pierre C. Wong and Wanda C. Miller-Hance, 121–44. London: Springer, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First World War Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “55 Year Old Mystery About The Dark Side Of The Moon Solved.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 10, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Use of ADP Equipment Operated by Three or Four Typical Government Contractors.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 24, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, James T. “The Relationship between Technology Support and Extent of Technology Integration into College-Level Foreign Language Curricula.” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. “An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move.” New York Times, August 20, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst World War Studies
AbbreviationFirst World War Stud.
ISSN (print)1947-5020
ISSN (online)1947-5039

Other styles