How to format your references using the Dental Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke T. Infection risk puts the brakes on Canada’s biomedical research. Nature 2003;422:652.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hensch TK, Stryker MP. Columnar architecture sculpted by GABA circuits in developing cat visual cortex. Science 2004;303:1678–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green ED, Watson JD, Collins FS. Human Genome Project: Twenty-five years of big biology. Nature 2015;526:29–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Snoek LB, Sterken MG, Volkers RJM, Klatter M, Bosman KJ, Bevers RPJ, et al. A rapid and massive gene expression shift marking adolescent transition in C. elegans. Sci Rep 2014;4:3912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowen C. Children’s Speech Sound Disorders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Sen R. Secularism and Religion in Multi-faith Societies: The Case of India. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva Filho WJ. Intersubjectivity: Commentary on Intersubjectivity. In: Marsico G, editor. Jerome S. Bruner beyond 100: Cultivating Possibilities, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 65–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Materials.

Blog post
Andrews R. NASA Is Setting Up A Solar System-Wide Internet Connection. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2020 Census: Key Information Technology Decisions Must Be Made Soon. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
John SP. Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis polypodioides. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fales-Hill S. The Slave Trader’s Portrait. New York Times 2016:SR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Materials
AbbreviationDent. Mater.
ISSN (print)0109-5641
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Dentistry

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