How to format your references using the Dental Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pasachoff JM. Transit of Venus: Last chance to see. Nature 2012;485:303–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orme CM, Bogan JS. Cell biology. Sorting out diabetes. Science 2009;324:1155–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubie DC, Gessmann CK, Frost DJ. Partitioning of oxygen during core formation on the Earth and Mars. Nature 2004;429:58–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang X, Willenbring H, Akkari Y, Torimaru Y, Foster M, Al-Dhalimy M, et al. Cell fusion is the principal source of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes. Nature 2003;422:897–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen G, Wang X, Li X. Fundamentals of Complex Networks. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Khalbuss WE, Means M, editors. Gynecological and Breast Cytopathology Board Review and Self-Assessment. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Reimair F, Teufl P, Zefferer T. CrySIL: Bringing Crypto to the Modern User. In: Monfort V, Krempels K-H, Majchrzak TA, Turk Ž, editors. Web Information Systems and Technologies: 11th International Conference, WEBIST 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20–22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 70–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Molecule That Mimics Exercise Could Help Treat Obesity and Diabetes. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost/Benefit Analysis--A Legislative Branch Viewpoint. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arntson JD. Heidegger and disclosive rhetoric: Two divergent paths in immanence and transcendence. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. In World of Finance, She Has Already Driven the Green. New York Times 2012:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Materials
AbbreviationDent. Mater.
ISSN (print)0109-5641
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Dentistry

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