How to format your references using the Dental Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wakeham B. UK physics gets a health check. Nature 2008;455:592.
A journal article with 2 authors
Häkkinen S, Rhines PB. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science 2004;304:555–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kagawa F, Miyagawa K, Kanoda K. Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature 2005;436:534–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schumer M, Xu C, Powell DL, Durvasula A, Skov L, Holland C, et al. Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes. Science 2018;360:656–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauldry WC. Introduction to Real Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Hanachi C, Bénaben F, Charoy F, editors. Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries: First International Conference, ISCRAM-med 2014, Toulouse, France, October 15-17, 2014. Proceedings. vol. 196. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Carless MA, Griffiths LR. Cytogenetics of Primary Skin Tumors. In: Murphy MJ, editor. Molecular Diagnostics in Dermatology and Dermatopathology, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2011, p. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happens To Men Who Stay Abstinent Until Marriage? IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education’s Chapter 1 and 2 Programs and Local Dropout Prevention and Reentry Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E C-C. The syntax of comparative correlatives in Mandarin Chinese. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Two Asian-American Actors in ‘Hawaii Five-0’ Depart. New York Times 2017:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Materials
AbbreviationDent. Mater.
ISSN (print)0109-5641
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Dentistry

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