How to format your references using the Dental Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarvis MJ. Atmospheric science. Bridging the atmospheric divide. Science 2001;293:2218–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell N, Grayson M. Index 2014 Global. Nature 2014;515:S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakakura A, Ukai A, Ishihara K. Enantioselective halocyclization of polyprenoids induced by nucleophilic phosphoramidites. Nature 2007;445:900–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clare DK, Bakkes PJ, van Heerikhuizen H, van der Vies SM, Saibil HR. Chaperonin complex with a newly folded protein encapsulated in the folding chamber. Nature 2009;457:107–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf KH, Barnes R. VoIP Emergency Calling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Nicholls SJ, Crowe T, editors. Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Jesteadt W, Leibold LJ. Loudness in the Laboratory, Part I: Steady-State Sounds. In: Florentine M, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. Loudness, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 109–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Battery Biodegrades Inside The Human Body. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Quality Assurance: The Fastener Quality Act’s Small-Lot Exemption. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casale N. Generational preferences in marketing medium selections of animal adoptions in nonprofit organizations: A correlational study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Sisario B. Radio and Television; Public Broadcasters Fear a ‘Collapse.’ New York Times 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Materials
AbbreviationDent. Mater.
ISSN (print)0109-5641
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Dentistry

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