How to format your references using the Dental Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dental Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horton B. Applications matter. Nature 2002;416:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macnaghten P, Owen R. Environmental science: good governance for geoengineering. Nature 2011;479:293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gouldstone A, Van Vliet KJ, Suresh S. Nanoindentation. Simulation of defect nucleation in a crystal. Nature 2001;411:656.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sánchez-Lavega A, Pérez-Hoyos S, Rojas JF, Hueso R, French RG. A strong decrease in Saturn’s equatorial jet at cloud level. Nature 2003;423:623–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ward S. TraderMind. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Alsedà i Soler L, Cushing JM, Elaydi S, Pinto AA, editors. Difference Equations, Discrete Dynamical Systems and Applications: ICDEA, Barcelona, Spain, July 2012. vol. 180. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hampp R, Hartmann A, Nehls U. The Rhizosphere: Molecular Interactions Between Microorganisms and Roots. In: Matyssek R, Schnyder H, Oßwald W, Ernst D, Munch JC, Pretzsch H, editors. Growth and Defence in Plants: Resource Allocation at Multiple Scales, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 111–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dental Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E. Where Does Venom Come From? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Linking Test Facilities Can Help Leverage Resources and Improve Technology Transfer Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gravano A. Turn-taking and affirmative cue words in task-oriented dialogue. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. Embracing Miami’s Past And Future. New York Times 2013:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDental Materials
AbbreviationDent. Mater.
ISSN (print)0109-5641
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Dentistry

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