How to format your references using the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien RD. Physics. Topology from the bottom up. Science. 2003;299(5613):1671-1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood BJ, Halliday AN. Cooling of the Earth and core formation after the giant impact. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1345-1348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza R, Barel I, Urbakh M. Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1896.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Checkley DM Jr, Dickson AG, Takahashi M, Radich JA, Eisenkolb N, Asch R. Elevated CO2 enhances otolith growth in young fish. Science. 2009;324(5935):1683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore LA. Physical Properties of Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Goh C-K, Ong Y-S, Tan KC, eds. Multi-Objective Memetic Algorithms. Vol 171. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Libal KR, Harding S. Community Practice, Fostering Participation, and Human Rights. In: Harding S, ed. Human Rights-Based Community Practice in the United States. SpringerBriefs in Rights-Based Approaches to Social Work. Springer International Publishing; 2015:79-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. New Close-Ups of Saturn’s Rings Are Gorgeous And Fascinating. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Development Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan LG. Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico J. The Film Festival in a Backyard. New York Times. October 4, 2017:MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationPlast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0032-1052
ISSN (online)1529-4242

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