How to format your references using the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crothers DM. Biophysics. Fine tuning gene regulation. Science. 2013;339(6121):766-767.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu L-Q, Dickman JD. Neural correlates of a magnetic sense. Science. 2012;336(6084):1054-1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz W, Sanderson W, Scherbov S. The end of world population growth. Nature. 2001;412(6846):543-545.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Minamino T, Morimoto YV, Kinoshita M, Aldridge PD, Namba K. The bacterial flagellar protein export apparatus processively transports flagellar proteins even with extremely infrequent ATP hydrolysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazze RS, Strock ES, Bergenstal RM, et al. Staged Diabetes Management. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
da Silva LFM, Öchsner A, Adams RD, eds. Handbook of Adhesion Technology. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Pawley JB. Points, Pixels, and Gray Levels: Digitizing Image Data. In: Pawley JB, ed. Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy. Springer US; 2006:59-79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. New Theory Could Explain Why Hot Water Freezes Faster Than Cold Water. IFLScience. Published January 13, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control System: Selected Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Operations, Modernization, and Structure. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper J. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in a Porous Media Using Python. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Remnick N. Pregnant Day Care Owner Is Found Dead in Her Bronx Home. New York Times. January 7, 2016:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationPlast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0032-1052
ISSN (online)1529-4242

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