How to format your references using the Journal of Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2000) US industry starts to think big by acting small. Nature 408:621–622
A journal article with 2 authors
Siller S, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. (2001) Sexual selection and the maintenance of sex. Nature 411:689–692
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Carlson SS (2004) A synaptic laminin-calcium channel interaction organizes active zones in motor nerve terminals. Nature 432:580–587
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Krot AN, Meibom A, Russell SS, et al (2001) A new astrophysical setting for chondrule formation. Science 291:1776–1779

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Putt A (2006) Putt’s Law & the Successful Technocrat. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bonchi F, Ferrari E, Malin B, Saygin Y (eds) (2008) Privacy, Security, and Trust in KDD: First ACM SIGKDD International Workshop, PinKDD 2007, San Jose, CA, USA, August 12, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tarr JE, Soria V (2015) Challenges in Conducting Large-Scale Studies of Curricular Effectiveness: Data Collection and Analyses in the COSMIC Project. In: Middleton JA, Cai J, Hwang S (eds) Large-Scale Studies in Mathematics Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) $250 Million Increase To NASA’s Budget Next Year. In: IFLScience.’s-budget-next-year/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krutsinger R (2014) Evaluation of Grassland Restoration Success in Illinois Using Indicators of Ecosystem Function. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) Croissants and Buttery Bliss. New York Times NJ12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2000; Siller and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siller and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Krot et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Economics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0044-2372
ISSN (online)1861-8928
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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