How to format your references using the Journal of Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meijer D (2009) Neuroscience. Went fishing, caught a snake. Science 325:1353–1354
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman JRS, Keating AE (2003) Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays. Science 300:2097–2101
A journal article with 3 authors
Halpin A, Johnson PJM, Miller RJD (2014) Comment on “Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems.” Science 344:1099
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lanin AA, Voronin AA, Fedotov AB, Zheltikov AM (2014) Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared. Sci Rep 4:6670

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish RP, Greene SA (2005) Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schoepf UJ, Meinel FG (eds) (2016) Multidetector-Row CT of the Thorax, 2nd ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Schwarzwald H, Collins EM, Gillespie S, Spinks-Franklin AIA (2015) Long-term Outcomes for Children and Adolescents After International Adoption. In: Collins EM, Gillespie S, Spinks-Franklin AIA (eds) International Adoption and Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 41–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Economics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) There’s A Hidden Reef Seven Times The Size Of NYC Behind The Great Barrier Reef. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyertholen AN (2014) Blurring the lines: The invention of abstract in German literature since 1800. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) Alabama County’s Debt Deal Averts Bankruptcy. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meijer 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Newman and Keating 2003; Meijer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Newman and Keating 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lanin et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Economics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0044-2372
ISSN (online)1861-8928
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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