How to format your references using the Journal of Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seitz F (2000) Decline of the generalist. Nature 403:483
A journal article with 2 authors
Rai AK, Cook-Deegan R (2013) Genetics. Moving beyond “isolated” gene patents. Science 341:137–138
A journal article with 3 authors
Park HH, Woo K, Ahn J-P (2013) Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles robustly fixed on the outermost surface of magnetic silica microspheres. Sci Rep 3:1497
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Körtzinger A, Schimanski J, Send U, Wallace D (2004) The ocean takes a deep breath. Science 306:1337

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrow E, Boaz A, Brearley S, Ross F (2011) Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Demazeau Y, Pěchoucěk M, Corchado JM, Pérez JB (eds) (2011) Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Blokhuis H, Veissier I, Jones B, Miele M (2013) The Welfare Quality® vision. In: Blokhuis H, Miele M, Veissier I, Jones B (eds) Improving farm animal welfare: Science and society working together: the Welfare Quality approach. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 71–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Economics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Free Passes To National Parks Today. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Railroad Safety: Accidents in Pennsylvania and Related Federal Enforcement Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska DP (2017) Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2016) Bowles Shakes Off Illness To Coach in Blowout Loss. New York Times SP3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seitz 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seitz 2000; Rai and Cook-Deegan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rai and Cook-Deegan 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Körtzinger et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Economics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0044-2372
ISSN (online)1861-8928
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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