How to format your references using the Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitching RL. Ecology. Crafting the pieces of the diversity jigsaw puzzle. Science. 2006;313(5790):1055-1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hennessy ET, Betley TA. Complex N-heterocycle synthesis via iron-catalyzed, direct C-H bond amination. Science. 2013;340(6132):591-595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn B, Kamath H, Tarascon JM. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices. Science. 2011;334(6058):928-935.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mayntz D, Raubenheimer D, Salomon M, Toft S, Simpson SJ. Nutrient-specific foraging in invertebrate predators. Science. 2005;307(5706):111-113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q. Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Canbay E. Peritoneal Surface Malignancies: A Curative Approach. (Yonemura Y, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch C. Tunnel Vision: Insights from Biochemical and Biophysical Studies. In: Ito K, ed. Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides. Springer Japan; 2014:61-86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ask A Physicist To Speak At Your Funeral. IFLScience. Published February 22, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Secure Flight: TSA Could Take Additional Steps to Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Canetta SE. Type III Neuregulin1 Signaling in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Affects Thermal Pain Sensation and Hyperalgesia. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. In Her Shoes. New York Times. October 9, 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biosafety and Biosecurity
ISSN (print)2588-9338

Other styles