How to format your references using the Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV. India’s drug tests. Nature. 2005;436(7050):485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tice MM, Lowe DR. Photosynthetic microbial mats in the 3,416-Myr-old ocean. Nature. 2004;431(7008):549-552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernlund JW, Thomas C, Tackley PJ. A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature. 2005;434(7035):882-886.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kelly PN, Dakic A, Adams JM, Nutt SL, Strasser A. Tumor growth need not be driven by rare cancer stem cells. Science. 2007;317(5836):337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen C. Business Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kovalev M. A Pipelined Multi-Core MIPS Machine: Hardware Implementation and Correctness Proof. Vol 9000. (Müller SM, Paul WJ, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Janaki SS, Ebenezer D. A Blur Reducing Adaptive Filter for the Removal of Mixed Noise in Images. In: Elleithy K, Sobh T, Mahmood A, Iskander M, Karim M, eds. Advances in Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering: Proceedings of IETA 2005, TeNe 2005, EIAE 2005. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006:26-30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Blog post
Luntz S. Whether You Respond To A Placebo Can Indicate If You’ll Respond To Antidepressants. IFLScience. Published October 3, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB Can More Effectively Use Its Investment Reviews. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevilla AD. The moderating influence of core self-evaluation, emotional intelligence and extraversion on career success. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B. Trump Picks an Overseer of Derivatives Trading. New York Times. March 15, 2017:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biosafety and Biosecurity
ISSN (print)2588-9338

Other styles