How to format your references using the Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pauly D. Obituary: Ransom Aldrich Myers (1952-2007). Nature. 2007;447(7141):160.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGraw JB, Furedi MA. Deer browsing and population viability of a forest understory plant. Science. 2005;307(5711):920-922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lind PA, Berg OG, Andersson DI. Mutational robustness of ribosomal protein genes. Science. 2010;330(6005):825-827.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun W, Arculus RJ, Kamenetsky VS, Binns RA. Release of gold-bearing fluids in convergent margin magmas prompted by magnetite crystallization. Nature. 2004;431(7011):975-978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bucci D. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Frank J, ed. Electron Tomography: Methods for Three-Dimensional Visualization of Structures in the Cell. Second Edition. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Aamodt MG. Using Background Checks in the Employee Selection Process. In: Hanvey C, Sady K, eds. Practitioner’s Guide to Legal Issues in Organizations. Springer International Publishing; 2015:85-110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Blog post
Hale T. Extremely Rare Sumatran Rhino Gives Birth At Indonesian Sanctuary. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Applying Leading Practices for Managing Risk and Testing. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tillman KA. Constructing the Concept of Time: Roles of Perception, Language, and Culture. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Winerip M. Tunnels, Disguises and Sewers: A Prison’s Inmates Have Found Many Ways to Flee. New York Times. June 10, 2015:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biosafety and Biosecurity
ISSN (print)2588-9338

Other styles