How to format your references using the Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reif JH. Computing. Successes and challenges. Science. 2002;296(5567):478-479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob Y, Martienssen R. Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go. Science. 2012;336(6087):1391-1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flachsova M, Sindelka R, Kubista M. Single blastomere expression profiling of Xenopus laevis embryos of 8 to 32-cells reveals developmental asymmetry. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2278.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pine DJ, Gollub JP, Brady JF, Leshansky AM. Chaos and threshold for irreversibility in sheared suspensions. Nature. 2005;438(7070):997-1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith RE, Carraher E, DeLisle P. Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
MacEntee K, Burkholder C, Schwab-Cartas J, eds. What’s a Cellphilm?: Integrating Mobile Phone Technology into Participatory Visual Research and Activism. SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu M, Tam HP, Jen T-H. Test Administration and Data Preparation. In: Tam HP, Jen T-H, eds. Educational Measurement for Applied Researchers: Theory into Practice. Springer; 2016:59-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mount Etna Just Exploded Into Life. IFLScience. Published February 28, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area--Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young W. Diamagnetism of a supersonic rotating magnetized plasma. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murray J. Defying an Unwritten Rule of Escalator Riding. New York Times. August 23, 2016:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biosafety and Biosecurity
ISSN (print)2588-9338

Other styles