How to format your references using the Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fynbo JPU. Astronomy. An exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst. Science. 2014;343(6166):34-35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park CY, Dolmetsch R. Cell signaling. The double life of a transcription factor takes it outside the nucleus. Science. 2006;314(5796):64-65.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foley SF, Buhre S, Jacob DE. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction. Nature. 2003;421(6920):249-252.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ratje AH, Loerke J, Mikolajka A, et al. Head swivel on the ribosome facilitates translocation by means of intra-subunit tRNA hybrid sites. Nature. 2010;468(7324):713-716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumann W. Dynamics of the Bacterial Chromosome. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Missbach M. SAP on the Cloud. (Stelzel J, Gardiner C, Anderson G, Tempes M, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Pappenheimer W. Tuning in Rorschach Maps. In: Adams R, Gibson S, Arisona SM, eds. Transdisciplinary Digital Art. Sound, Vision and the New Screen: Digital Art Weeks and Interactive Futures 2006/2007, Zurich, Switzerland and Victoria, BC, Canada. Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2008:33-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Blog post
Luntz S. Being In Nature Benefits Health - But How? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Enhanced Data Collection Could Help FCC Better Monitor Competition in the Wireless Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darwich MK. Cost-Efficient Video On Demand (VOD) Streaming Using Cloud Services. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Federer Beats Wawrinka, and His Own Aging Body, to Reach Final. New York Times. January 26, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biosafety and Biosecurity
ISSN (print)2588-9338

Other styles