How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneider, M. D. (2011). Development. A cardiac nonproliferation treaty. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6028), 426–427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldstein, J. L., & Brown, M. S. (2012). History of science. A golden era of Nobel laureates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6110), 1033–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J.-B., Ye, K., & Patel, D. J. (2004). Structural basis for overhang-specific small interfering RNA recognition by the PAZ domain. Nature, 429(6989), 318–322.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gómez-Consarnau, L., González, J. M., Coll-Lladó, M., Gourdon, P., Pascher, T., Neutze, R., et al. (2007). Light stimulates growth of proteorhodopsin-containing marine Flavobacteria. Nature, 445(7124), 210–213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazovsky, L. G., Cheng, N., Shaw, W.-T., Gutierrez, D., & Wong, S.-W. (2011). Broadband Optical Access Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Karniel, A. (2011). Managing the Dynamics of New Product Development Processes: A New Product Lifecycle Management Paradigm. (Y. Reich, Ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lipinski, P., Puchala, D., Wosiak, A., & Byczkowska-Lipinska, L. (2008). Transformer Monitoring System Taking Advantage of Hybrid Wavelet Fourier Transform. In S. Wiak, A. Krawczyk, & I. Dolezel (Eds.), Intelligent Computer Techniques in Applied Electromagnetics (pp. 31–36). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 11). New Dog Robot Can Run and Climb Just Like The Real Thing. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Comments on Federal Payments to the Adelanto School District, California (No. B-164031(1).90). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Radcliffe, M. L. (2012). Random Graphs with Attribute Affinity (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, February 10). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, p. MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schneider 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Goldstein and Brown 2012; Schneider 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldstein and Brown 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gómez-Consarnau et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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