How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gitler, A. D. (2011). Neuroscience. Another reason to exercise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6056), 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rader, D. J., & Daugherty, A. (2008). Translating molecular discoveries into new therapies for atherosclerosis. Nature, 451(7181), 904–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitaker, R. J., Grogan, D. W., & Taylor, J. W. (2003). Geographic barriers isolate endemic populations of hyperthermophilic archaea. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 976–978.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sekitani, T., Yokota, T., Zschieschang, U., Klauk, H., Bauer, S., Takeuchi, K., et al. (2009). Organic nonvolatile memory transistors for flexible sensor arrays. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5959), 1516–1519.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tran, J. (2010). The Vietnam War and Theologies of Memory. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hodicky, J. (Ed.). (2016). Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems: Third International Workshop, MESAS 2016, Rome, Italy, June 15-16, 2016, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 9991). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Grellert, M. (2016). Rapid Prototyping in the Context of Cultural Heritage and Museum Displays. In S. Münster, M. Pfarr-Harfst, P. Kuroczyński, & M. Ioannides (Eds.), 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage II: How to Manage Data and Knowledge Related to Interpretative Digital 3D Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage (pp. 77–118). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 12). The Southern Ocean Shows A Revived Ability To Absorb Atmospheric CO2. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Contract Pricing: Subcontractor Prices Overstated on AN/TSQ-111 Communications Contract (No. NSIAD-86-166). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burg, C. A. (2010). Faculty perspectives on doctoral student mentoring: The mentor’s odyssey (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K., Das, A., & Lyall, S. (2017, February 14). The Winner, in a Comeback. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gitler 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gitler 2011; Rader and Daugherty 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rader and Daugherty 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sekitani et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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