How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (Eur J Crim Policy Res). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stokstad, E. (2000). PALEONTOLOGY: Fossils Made to Order, Any Size. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5472), 1729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cande, S. C., & Stegman, D. R. (2011). Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head. Nature, 475(7354), 47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang, M.-M., Zhang, J., & Miao, D. (2006). A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature, 441(7096), 972–974.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ghosal, S., Hemminger, J. C., Bluhm, H., Mun, B. S., Hebenstreit, E. L. D., Ketteler, G., et al. (2005). Electron spectroscopy of aqueous solution interfaces reveals surface enhancement of halides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5709), 563–566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, A. W., Kirkman, N. C., & Paul, P. M. (2006). Mobile Radio Network Design in the VHF and UHF Bands. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lansiquot, R. D. (Ed.). (2016). Technology, Theory, and Practice in Interdisciplinary STEM Programs: Connecting STEM and Non-STEM Approaches. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Dyshkant, N. (2013). Comparison of Point Clouds Acquired by 3D Scanner. In R. Gonzalez-Diaz, M.-J. Jimenez, & B. Medrano (Eds.), Discrete Geometry for Computer Imagery: 17th IAPR International Conference, DGCI 2013, Seville, Spain, March 20-22, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 47–58). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, September 18). Earth’s Gravity Gives The Moon A Massage. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Department of Transportation: Key Issues and Management Challenges, 2013 (No. GAO-13-402T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blanchard, E. J. (2010). Legato trombone: A survey of pedagogical resources (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, August 7). Amy Schumer to Make Her Broadway Debut. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Landau 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2003; Goldin 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cande and Stegman 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Schell et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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