How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morken, J. P. (2014). Organic chemistry: Catalysis marches on. Nature, 508(7496), 324–325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, J. D., & Jayaraman, V. (2013). Feature detection and orientation tuning in the Drosophila central complex. Nature, 503(7475), 262–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hollingsworth, R. G., Armstrong, J. W., & Campbell, E. (2002). Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails. Nature, 417(6892), 915–916.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Macůrek, L., Lindqvist, A., Lim, D., Lampson, M. A., Klompmaker, R., Freire, R., et al. (2008). Polo-like kinase-1 is activated by aurora A to promote checkpoint recovery. Nature, 455(7209), 119–123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ccps. (2017). Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hainzelin, É. (Ed.). (2013). Cultivating Biodiversity to Transform Agriculture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Goedertier, S., Mues, C., & Vanthienen, J. (2007). Specifying Process-Aware Access Control Rules in SBVR. In A. Paschke & Y. Biletskiy (Eds.), Advances in Rule Interchange and Applications: International Symposium, RuleML 2007, Orlando, Florida, October 25-26, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 39–52). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 30). Watch Cheetah Give Birth To Four Cubs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad (No. 126497). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deshotel, M. W. (2017). Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, November 14). Nonstop Days, a Red Carpet Night. New York Times, p. E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morken 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Morken 2014; Seelig and Jayaraman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Jayaraman 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Macůrek et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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