How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thulborn, T. (2003). Comment on “Ascent of dinosaurs linked to an iridium anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5630), 169; author reply 169.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmitz, L., & Motani, R. (2011). Nocturnality in dinosaurs inferred from scleral ring and orbit morphology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6030), 705–708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ninomiya, H., Elinson, R. P., & Winklbauer, R. (2004). Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning. Nature, 430(6997), 364–367.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rämet, M., Manfruelli, P., Pearson, A., Mathey-Prevot, B., & Ezekowitz, R. A. B. (2002). Functional genomic analysis of phagocytosis and identification of a Drosophila receptor for E. coli. Nature, 416(6881), 644–648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker, C., & Fincham, B. (2011). Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Imbach, P., Kühne, T., & Arceci, R. J. (Eds.). (2014). Pediatric Oncology: A Comprehensive Guide (3rd ed. 2014.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Teasley, C. (2016). Evolving Criticality for a Transnational Public Pedagogy. In M. F. Agnello & W. M. Reynolds (Eds.), Practicing Critical Pedagogy: The Influences of Joe L. Kincheloe (pp. 39–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, October 5). China Wants To Build A Space Plane That Can Carry 20 People To Space. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). James Webb Space Telescope: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Estimate and Oversight of Test and Integration (No. GAO-13-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cope, J. A. (2015). Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, March 25). Astros Run Wild Against Syndergaard and d’Arnaud. New York Times, p. D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thulborn 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schmitz and Motani 2011; Thulborn 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmitz and Motani 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Rämet et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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