How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Broek, P. (2010). Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 453–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baker, M. B., & Peter, T. (2008). Small-scale cloud processes and climate. Nature, 451(7176), 299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wechsler, T., Newman, S., & West, S. C. (2011). Aberrant chromosome morphology in human cells defective for Holliday junction resolution. Nature, 471(7340), 642–646.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kondhare, K. R., Hedden, P., Kettlewell, P. S., Farrell, A. D., & Monaghan, J. M. (2014). Quantifying the impact of exogenous abscisic acid and gibberellins on pre-maturity α-amylase formation in developing wheat grains. Scientific reports, 4, 5355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan, R. M. (2013). Problem Solving and Data Analysis using Minitab. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Breitner, M. H., Denk, G., & Rentrop, P. (Eds.). (2008). From Nano to Space: Applied Mathematics Inspired by Roland Bulirsch. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao, X., Ren, X., Zhang, C., & Zhu, C. (2016). Online Identification and Robust Adaptive Control for Discrete Hysteresis Preisach Model. In Y. Jia, J. Du, H. Li, & W. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 1 (pp. 41–49). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 13). Researchers Identify Potential New Targets For Cancer Treatments. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1967). Automatic Data Processing (No. 088319). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, G. C. (2012). Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, July 9). Bad Math and a Coming Public Pension Crisis. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van den Broek 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker and Peter 2008; van den Broek 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baker and Peter 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kondhare et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

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