How to format your references using the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirose, K. (2010). Geochemistry. Deep mantle properties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5962), 151–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singel, D. J., & Stamler, J. S. (2004). Blood traffic control. Nature, 430(6997), 297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackburn, E. H., Epel, E. S., & Lin, J. (2015). Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6265), 1193–1198.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Côté, M., Misasi, J., Ren, T., Bruchez, A., Lee, K., Filone, C. M., et al. (2011). Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection. Nature, 477(7364), 344–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnini, S., Corain, L., Marozzi, M., & Salmaso, L. (2014). Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing: Rank and Permutation Methods with Applications in R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shetty, Y. (2006). Practical .NET for Financial Markets. (S. Jayaswal, Ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, L., Guo, Y., Cao, X., Wu, G., & Shen, D. (2016). Consistent Multi-Atlas Hippocampus Segmentation for Longitudinal MR Brain Images with Temporal Sparse Representation. In G. Wu, P. Coupé, Y. Zhan, B. C. Munsell, & D. Rueckert (Eds.), Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging: Second International Workshop, Patch-MI 2016, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2016, Athens, Greece, October 17, 2016, Proceedings (pp. 34–42). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 26). Total Solar Eclipse To Darken Skies Above Europe March 20th. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Coordination Efforts are Underway, but Challenges Continue (No. GAO-14-154T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartenhagen, J. (2012). Transitioning organizations for sustainability: Exploring the intersection of sustainability, worldview, and organization development (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, February 11). Looking For Love. New York Times, p. 141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hirose 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hirose 2010; Singel and Stamler 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singel and Stamler 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Côté et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Crim. Pol. Res.
ISSN (print)0928-1371
ISSN (online)1572-9869

Other styles