How to format your references using the Photosynthesis Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photosynthesis Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl R (2002) Attractive forces in Asia. Nature 418:4–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Michel-Kerjan E, Kunreuther H (2011) Disaster management. Redesigning flood insurance. Science 333:408–409
A journal article with 3 authors
Le Mée L, Girardeau J, Monnier C (2004) Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge. Nature 432:167–172
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakanishi Y, Lu B, Gerard C, Iwasaki A (2009) CD8(+) T lymphocyte mobilization to virus-infected tissue requires CD4(+) T-cell help. Nature 462:510–513

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry J-F, Brînzei N (2015) Systems Dependability Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
MacEntee K, Burkholder C, Schwab-Cartas J (eds) (2016) What’s a Cellphilm?: Integrating Mobile Phone Technology into Participatory Visual Research and Activism. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Goddard J (2008) Flea-Borne Diseases. In: Goddard J (ed) Infectious Diseases and Arthropods. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 131–142

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photosynthesis Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Male Researchers Stress Out Lab Rodents. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Department of Education’s Update of the State and Other Tax Allowance for Student Aid Award Year 2005-2006. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen SD (2014) Putting out fires: How communication professionals understand and practice conflict resolution. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis JH, Kelly K (2017) Scrutiny for Architects Of President’s Tax Plan. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl 2002; Michel-Kerjan and Kunreuther 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Michel-Kerjan and Kunreuther 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakanishi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotosynthesis Research
AbbreviationPhotosynth. Res.
ISSN (print)0166-8595
ISSN (online)1573-5079
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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