How to format your references using the Photosynthesis Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photosynthesis Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Offringa R (2006) Cancer. Cancer immunotherapy is more than a numbers game. Science 314:68–69
A journal article with 2 authors
Ibáñez M, Cabot A (2013) Chemistry. All change for nanocrystals. Science 340:935–936
A journal article with 3 authors
Kinoshita T, Wenger T, Weiss DS (2006) A quantum Newton’s cradle. Nature 440:900–903
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bakal C, Aach J, Church G, Perrimon N (2007) Quantitative morphological signatures define local signaling networks regulating cell morphology. Science 316:1753–1756

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kühn V (2006) Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Percec V (ed) (2013) Hierarchical Macromolecular Structures: 60 Years after the Staudinger Nobel Prize II. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Balaji Rao K, Anoop MB, Vinod G, Kushwaha HS (2016) Risk Informed In-Service Inspection of PWR Nuclear Power Plant Piping Components Subjected to Erosion-Corrosion Using Markov Chain Model. In: Kumar U, Ahmadi A, Verma AK, Varde P (eds) Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photosynthesis Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) This Is What Climate Change Deniers Sound Like To Normal People. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Biotechnology: Role of Institutional Biosafety Committees. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaw RM (2012) The influence of organizational culture on employee attitudes towards information security policy. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrington N (2017) When You’re Dope And You Know It. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Offringa 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Offringa 2006; Ibáñez and Cabot 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ibáñez and Cabot 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Bakal et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotosynthesis Research
AbbreviationPhotosynth. Res.
ISSN (print)0166-8595
ISSN (online)1573-5079
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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