How to format your references using the Photosynthesis Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photosynthesis Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Minteer B (2014) Is it right to reverse extinction? Nature 509:261
A journal article with 2 authors
Van Tuyl R, Pereltsvaig A (2012) Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science 335:657; author reply 657
A journal article with 3 authors
Sethna JP, Dahmen KA, Myers CR (2001) Crackling noise. Nature 410:242–250
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pfleiderer C, Uhlarz M, Hayden SM, et al (2001) Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the d-band metal ZrZn2. Nature 412:58–61

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durbin PA, Reif BAP (2010) Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schulzrinne H, State R, Niccolini S (eds) (2008) Principles, Systems and Applications of IP Telecommunications. Services and Security for Next Generation Networks: Second International Conference, IPTComm 2008, Heidelberg, Germany, July 1-2, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kechagias D, Laspas F (2015) Imaging of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms. In: Sakorafas GH, Smyrniotis V, Sarr MG (eds) Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: From Imaging to Differential Diagnosis and Management. Springer, Milano, pp 37–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photosynthesis Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) DNA Testing Now Mandatory in Kuwait. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Information Technology: Homeland Security Needs to Improve Entry Exit System Expenditure Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya RM (2014) Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcgirr M (2017) Sink Into the Silence of Summer. New York Times SR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Minteer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Van Tuyl and Pereltsvaig 2012; Minteer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Van Tuyl and Pereltsvaig 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Pfleiderer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotosynthesis Research
AbbreviationPhotosynth. Res.
ISSN (print)0166-8595
ISSN (online)1573-5079
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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