How to format your references using the Photosynthesis Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photosynthesis Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart M (2009) Cell biology. Nuclear export of small RNAs. Science 326:1195–1196
A journal article with 2 authors
Peerapen P, Thongboonkerd V (2013) p38 MAPK mediates calcium oxalate crystal-induced tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells. Sci Rep 3:1041
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne BC, Voris HK, Ng PKL (2002) Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature 418:143
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Burguillos MA, Deierborg T, Kavanagh E, et al (2011) Caspase signalling controls microglia activation and neurotoxicity. Nature 472:319–324

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee WF (2005) Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zorn I, Maass S, Rommes E, et al (eds) (2007) Gender Designs IT: Construction and Deconstruction of Information Society Technology. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Jalongo MR, Machado C (2016) Workshop/Professional Development Sessions. In: Machado C (ed) Making Effective Presentations at Professional Conferences: A Guide for Teachers, Graduate Students and Professors. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photosynthesis Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Missing: Major Light Source In Universe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Aviation Safety: Air Taxis--The Most Accident-Prone Airlines--Need Better Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaete DO (2009) Investigation of intuitive eating after intervention measured by the Intuitive Eating Scale. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W, Romero S (2015) Allies Resist U.S. Strategy in Drug Fight. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Stewart 2009; Peerapen and Thongboonkerd 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peerapen and Thongboonkerd 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Burguillos et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotosynthesis Research
AbbreviationPhotosynth. Res.
ISSN (print)0166-8595
ISSN (online)1573-5079
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

Other styles