How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Semantics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Semantics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Venter JC. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The human genome at 10: successes and challenges. Science. 2011;331:546–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tikku AA, Direen NG. Comment on “Major Australian-Antarctic plate reorganization at Hawaiian-Emperor bend time.” Science. 2008;321:490; author reply 490.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Morgan MG, Houghton A, Gibbons JH. Science and government. Improving science and technology advice for Congress. Science. 2001;293:1999–2000.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li S, Ting NS, Zheng L, Chen PL, Ziv Y, Shiloh Y, et al. Functional link of BRCA1 and ataxia telangiectasia gene product in DNA damage response. Nature. 2000;406:210–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baudin P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Manolis GD, Polyzos D, editors. Recent Advances in Boundary Element Methods: A Volume to Honor Professor Dimitri Beskos. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jara J, Daniel F, Casati F, Marchese M. From a Simple Flow to Social Applications. In: Sheng QZ, Kjeldskov J, editors. Current Trends in Web Engineering: ICWE 2013 International Workshops ComposableWeb, QWE, MDWE, DMSSW, EMotions, CSE, SSN, and PhD Symposium, Aalborg, Denmark, July 8-12, 2013 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Semantics.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. What The Heck Was This Smelly Pink Blob Floating In The Indian Ocean? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Mar. Report No.: RCED-87-74.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rafibakhsh N. Industrial Applications of Microsoft Xbox Kinect Sensor [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Wagner J. In Mets’ Lost Season, Collins Defends His Decisions. New York Times. 2017 Sep 29;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Semantics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Semantics
ISSN (online)2041-1480
Scope

Other styles