How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Semantics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Semantics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nowak MA. John Forbes Nash (1928-2015). Nature. 2015;522:420.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lee DH, Gupta JA. Tunable field control over the binding energy of single dopants by a charged vacancy in GaAs. Science. 2010;330:1807–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Keenan SW, Engel AS, Elsey RM. The alligator gut microbiome and implications for archosaur symbioses. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2877.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee DM, Friend DS, Gurish MF, Benoist C, Mathis D, Brenner MB. Mast cells: a cellular link between autoantibodies and inflammatory arthritis. Science. 2002;297:1689–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chong YY. Investment Risk Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
1. Bürgisser P. Condition: The Geometry of Numerical Algorithms. Cucker F, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lourenço R, Lourenço N, Horta N. Multi-objective Framework Implementation. In: Lourenço N, Horta N, editors. AIDA-CMK: Multi-Algorithm Optimization Kernel Applied to Analog IC Sizing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Semantics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. In The Search For Alien Life, Little Green Men Are Out and Purple Bacteria Are In. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jul. Report No.: AA-95-35(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gordon RL. Neural and behavioral correlates of song prosody [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yoo J. Forget Watergate. Think Iran-Contra. New York Times. 2017 May 18;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Semantics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Semantics
ISSN (online)2041-1480
Scope

Other styles