How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Semantics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Semantics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Moreno E. Cancer: Darwinian tumour suppression. Nature. 2014;509:435–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kaufman J, Jing J. China and AIDS--the time to act is now. Science. 2002;296:2339–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kossin JP, Emanuel KA, Vecchi GA. The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity. Nature. 2014;509:349–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee J-W, Son D-Y, Ahn TK, Shin H-W, Kim IY, Hwang S-J, et al. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell with unprecedentedly high photocurrent. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Henderson TJ. Beyond Borders. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Seckbach J, Kociolek P, editors. The Diatom World. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Qiao Y, Fallon E, Murphy L, Murphy J, Hanley A, Zhu X, et al. SCTP Performance Issue on Path Delay Differential. In: Boavida F, Monteiro E, Mascolo S, Koucheryavy Y, editors. Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 5th International Conference, WWIC 2007, Coimbra, Portugal, May 23-25, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Semantics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientist Spotlight: In Memoriam 2013 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Competition in the Airline Computerized Reservation System Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED-88-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coleman KM. Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (mrs M S ) Isabella. Rosenbach and Books. New York Times. 1960 Dec 18;The New York Times Book ReviewBR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Semantics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Semantics
ISSN (online)2041-1480

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