How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Semantics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Semantics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Maleczka RE Jr. Chemistry. Copper puts arenes in a hard position. Science. 2009;323:1572–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schwartz MA, Chen CS. Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality. Science. 2013;339:402–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nam J-M, Thaxton CS, Mirkin CA. Nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins. Science. 2003;301:1884–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dyall SD, Yan W, Delgadillo-Correa MG, Lunceford A, Loo JA, Clarke CF, et al. Non-mitochondrial complex I proteins in a hydrogenosomal oxidoreductase complex. Nature. 2004;431:1103–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knudsen S. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Harris J. Combinatorics and Graph Theory. Hirst JL, Mossinghoff M, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. van den Berg B, Leenes RE. Abort, Retry, Fail: Scoping Techno-Regulation and Other Techno-Effects. In: Hildebrandt M, Gaakeer J, editors. Human Law and Computer Law: Comparative Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Semantics.

Blog post
1. Hale T. AI Can Predict How Much Longer You Have Left To Live [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/ai-can-predict-how-much-longer-you-have-left-to-live/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Jun. Report No.: GAO-15-678T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rollo E. Effect of the Stoplight Diet and mode of intervention on triglyceride production in a veteran population [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mallozzi VM. For Their Wedding, the Moon Dimmed the Lights. New York Times. 2017 Aug 22;ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Semantics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Semantics
ISSN (online)2041-1480
Scope

Other styles