How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Semantics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Semantics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bunnett JF. How much does one vote count in an election? Science. 2000;290:1895b.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Williams WM, Ceci SJ. Recruiters and academia. Academics worry about hiring “undiscovered geniuses.” Nature. 2005;435:534.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dial KP, Jackson BE, Segre P. A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight. Nature. 2008;451:985–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hashimoto M, Nara T, Hirawake H, Morales J, Enomoto M, Mikoshiba K. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting parasite inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibits mammalian host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
1. Onji M. Dendritic Cells in Clinics. 2nd Edition. Fazle Akbar S, editor. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Suppes P. Ramsey’s Psychological Theory of Belief. In: Galavotti MC, editor. Cambridge and Vienna: Frank P Ramsey and the Vienna Circle. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 35–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Semantics.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Tree Diseases Are Good For The Forest. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. GAO Education Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-95-72R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jackson ME. Where are the parents: The parent’s perspective of parental involvement in education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Coe A. Presidential Biographies. New York Times. 2017 Feb 16;MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Semantics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Semantics
ISSN (online)2041-1480

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