How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, “Fuel options: The ideal biofuel,” Nature 474(7352), S9-11 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
N. P. Vyleta and P. Jonas, “Loose coupling between Ca2+ channels and release sensors at a plastic hippocampal synapse,” Science 343(6171), 665–670 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Kumar, H. X. Tang, and J. Schroers, “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals,” Nature 457(7231), 868–872 (2009).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Ge et al., “Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon approaching THz frequency in multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5722 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Schweiker, Dust that Breathes, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2010).
An edited book
S. Dustdar, Service Engineering: European Research Results, F. Li, Ed., Springer, Vienna (2011).
A chapter in an edited book
J. W. Day and C. Hall, “A Tale of Twelve Cities and Ten Regions,” in America’s Most Sustainable Cities and Regions: Surviving the 21st Century Megatrends, C. Hall, Ed., pp. 37–114, Springer, New York, NY (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Optics.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Do You Really Want To Know What’s Lurking In Your Genome?,” IFLScience, 3 March 2017, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Savings Possible by Buying Automatic Data Processing Equipment or by Leasing It From Commercial Leasing Firms,” B-114829, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1970).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. H. Gandarilla, “Family preservation: A content analysis of literature,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “QUICK BITE | Chester; Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs,” in New York Times, p. 14NJ19 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Optics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Opt.
ISSN (print)1083-3668
ISSN (online)1560-2281
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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