How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Chakravarty, “Physics. From complexity to simplicity,” Science 319(5864), 735–736 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Gautel and E. Ehler, “Cell biology. Gett’N-WASP stripes,” Science 330(6010), 1491–1492 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
A. C. Mason, M. L. Oshinsky, and R. R. Hoy, “Hyperacute directional hearing in a microscale auditory system,” Nature 410(6829), 686–690 (2001).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Bank et al., “Dermcidin isoform-2 induced nullification of the effect of acetyl salicylic acid in platelet aggregation in acute myocardial infarction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5804 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. A. Manuele, On the Practice of Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005).
An edited book
M. S. Rahman and S. Fujita, Eds., WALCOM: Algorithms and Computation: 4th International Workshop, WALCOM 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh, February 10-12, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
V. V. Palin and E. V. Radkevich, “On the Riemann’s Problem for One Nonstrictly Hyperbolic System,” in Continuous and Distributed Systems II: Theory and Applications, V. A. Sadovnichiy and M. Z. Zgurovsky, Eds., pp. 83–99, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Optics.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Finally, A Proven Way To Keep Great White Sharks At Arm’s Length,” IFLScience, 6 July 2016 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965,” HEHS-94-156R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. D. Williams, “Playing the Hungarian card: An assessment of radical right impact on Slovak and Hungarian party systems and post-Communist democratic stability,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, “Hulu Adds Channels to Streaming Service,” in New York Times, p. B2 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Optics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Opt.
ISSN (print)1083-3668
ISSN (online)1560-2281
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles