How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. B. Pasquale, “Journal club. A biologist is gratified to find reconciliation for a conflicted receptor,” Nature 461(7261), 149 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
E. R. Fearon and K. M. Cadigan, “Cell biology. Wnt signaling glows with RNAi,” Science 308(5723), 801–803 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Holland, M. Cassidy, and C. J. Ballentine, “Meteorite Kr in Earth’s mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere,” Science 326(5959), 1522–1525 (2009).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Chen et al., “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3619 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. P. Wong et al., Nano-CMOS Circuit and Physical Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005).
An edited book
P. L. Bonate and D. R. Howard, Eds., Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Advances and Applications, Volume 3, Springer US, Boston, MA (2011).
A chapter in an edited book
M. Dimian and P. Andrei, “Noise Driven Relaxation Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems,” in Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems, P. Andrei, Ed., pp. 141–165, Springer, New York, NY (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Optics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Realistic Robot Faces Aren’t Enough – We Need Emotion To Put Us At Ease With Androids,” IFLScience, 19 June 2015, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Catalog Program: Progress and Problems in Attaining a Uniform Identification System for Supplies,” B-146778, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. A. Diorio, “The silent scream of Medusa: Restoring, or re-storying, her voice,” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “Nassau Has $100 Million for Open Space,” in New York Times, p. 14LI2 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Optics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Opt.
ISSN (print)1083-3668
ISSN (online)1560-2281
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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